Friday, January 27, 2012

Confession of Faith of Mizoram Presbyterian, Apostles' Creed, Nicene Creed, Westminster Confession, Confession of Faith of Presbyterians of Wales

      1.    Confession of Faith of Mizoram Presbyterian (PCI)
2.    The Apostles' Creed
3.    The Nicene Creed
4.    The Westminster Confession of Faith (1646)
5.    Confession of Faith of the Calvinistic Methodists or the Presbyterians of Wales

We the members of the Presbyterian Church of India affirms:

Article I

The Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments are the Word of God and the only infallible rule of Faith and duty.

Article II

There is but one God, and He alone is to be worshipped, He is a spirit, self-existent, self-omnipresent, yet distinct from all other spirits and from all material things; infinite, eternal, and unchangeable in His being, wisdom, power, holiness, justice, goodness, truth and love.

Article III

In the Godhead there are three persons, the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit, and these three are one God, the same in substance, equal in power and glory.

Article IV

God who created the heaven and the earth and all things therein, created man, male and female, after His image, in origin, and are brethren.

Article V

Man by his own free choice has transgressed God’s law and thereby has involved himself in guilt and corruption. To save man from the guilt, corruption and penalty of sin, and to give them eternal life, God in his infinite love sent into the world His eternal and only – begotten Son the Lord Jesus Christ, in whom alone man can be saved. The Eternal Son became true man and so was and continues to be the Son forever. He was conceived by the power of the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary, yet without sin. For sinful men He perfectly obeyed the law of God, and offered Himself a true and perfect sacrifice to satisfy divine justice and reconcile man to God. He died on the Cross, was buried and rose again from the death on the third day. He ascended to the right hand of God where He makes intersession for His people, and whence He shall come again to raise the death and to judge the world.

Article VI

The Holy Spirit, who proceeds from the Father and the Son, makes man partakers of salvation convincing them of their sins and misery, enlightening their minds in the knowledge of Christ, renewing their wills, persuading and enabling them to accept Jesus Christ as Lord and Saviour, and working in them all the fruits of righteousness.

Article VII

God in Christ makes a full and free offer of salvation to all men, and commands them to repent of their sins to believe in the Lord Jesus Christ as their Saviour, and to live a humble and holy life after His example and in obedience to God’s revealed will. Those who believe in Christ and obey Him are saved, receiving forgiveness of sins, justification, adoption as sons of God, sanctification through the indwelling of the Holy Spirit and eternal glory. Believers may also in this life enjoy assurance of their salvation. In His gracious work the Holy Spirit uses the means of grace especially the Word, sacraments and prayer.

Article VIII

The sacraments instituted by Christ are Baptism and the Lord’s Supper. Baptism is the washing with water in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit and is a sign and seal of our union to Christ, of regeneration and renewing of the Holy Spirit, and of our giving ourselves to the Lord. It is to be administered to such as repent of the sins and profess faith in Christ their Saviour, and to their Children

The Lord’s Supper is the partaking of the bread and the cup as a memorial of Christ’s death and is a sign and seal of the benefits thereof to believers. It is to be observed by His people till He comes, in token of their faith in Him and His sacrifice, of their appropriation of its benefits of their further giving of themselves to serve Him, and of their communion with Him and with one another. The benefits of the sacraments are not from any virtue in them or in him that administers them, but only from the blessing of Christ and the working of His Spirit in them that by faith receive the Sacrament.

Article IX

It is the duty of all believers to unite in church fellowship, to observe the sacraments and other ordinances of Christ, to obey His laws, to continue in prayer, to keep holy the Lord’s Day, to meet together for His worship, to wait upon the preaching of His Word, to give as God may prosper from them, to manifest a Christ-like spirit among themselves and towards all men, to labour of the extension of Christ’s kingdom through the world, and to wait for His glorious appearing.

Article X

At the last day the death shall be raised and all shall appear before the judgment seat of Christ and shall be judged according to the deeds done in this present life whether good or bad, the unbelieving and the wicked, being condemned, shall suffer the punishment due to their sins, but those who have believed in Christ and obeyed Him shall be openly acquitted and received into glory.



India Ram Presbyterian Kohhran chuan (Apostol thurin te, Nicea thurin te, Westminster thurin leh Wales Ram Presbyterian Kohhran thurinte chu Pathian thu hrilhfiahna tha tawka ngai a, Kohhran tan leh Pathian thu zirna hmunahte zirtir tlak nia pawm tlat chungin), a hnuaia thurin puanchhuahna thute hi a Pastor te, Probationary Pastor-te, Upate leh Kohhran Dan zawhkimten an vawn ngheh tlat atan a pawm a ni.


Thuthlung Hlui leh Thuthlung Thar Bute hi Pathian Thu a ni a, heng chauh hi rinna leh thiltih tehna dik lo thei lo a ni.


Pathian pakhat chauh a awm a, Amah chauh chu biak tur a ni. Amah chu Thlarau, mahnia awm a, hmun tina awm, thlarau dang zawng zawng leh thil dang reng reng laka hrang si a ni a. A miziaah te, finnaah te, thiltihtheihnaah te, thianghlimnaah te, diknaah te, thatnaah te, taknaah te leh hmangaihnaah te tawp chin nei lo, chatuan mi, danglam ngai lo a ni.


Pathianah chuan mi nung pathum, Pa leh Fapa leh Thlarau Thianghlim an awm a, an pathum hian Pathian pakhat an ni a, nihna thuhmun, thiltihtheihna leh ropuinaa intluk an ni.


Lei leh van leh a chhunga thil awm zawng zawng siamtu Pathian chuan mihring hi, hriatna, felna leh thianghlimnaa Ama anpuiin mipaah leh hmeichhiaah a siam a. Mi zawng zawng hi bul thuhmun leh chhungkaw khata unau anga inthui khawm vek kan ni.


Mihringte chuan anmahni duh thu ngeiin Pathian dan an bawhchhia a, thiam lohna leh chhiatnaah chuan anmahni an inbarh lut ta a. Chu thiam lohna leh chhiatna leh sual hremna ata chu anmahni chhan chhuak tur leh chatuan nunna pe turin hmangaihna tawp nei lo Pathian chuan, A chatuan Fapa neih chhun Lal Isua Krista chu khawvelah a rawn tir a; Ama zarah chauh chuan mihringte hi chhandamin an awm thei a. Chu chatuan Fapa chu mihring takah a lo chang a, mi nung pakhat mize pahnih nei, Pathian tak leh mihring tak a ni kumkhua ta a ni. Thlarau Thianghlim thiltihtheihnain nula thianghlim Mari chuan a pai a, a hring a; mahse, sual a nei lo. Mi sualte tan Pathian dan chu a zawm famkim a, Pathianin dikna a phut hlen chhuak tur leh mihringte Pathian remtir turin, inthawina tak leh famkim atan a inhlan a, kraws-ah a thi a, phumin a awm a, ni thum niah mitthi zing ata a tho leh a. Pathian ding lamah a han chho va, chutah chuan a mite tan a dilsak reng a, chuta tang chuan mitthite kai tho tur leh khawvel rorel turin a lo kal leh ang.


Thlarau Thianghlim, Pa leh Fapa ata lo chhuak chuan mihringte chu chhandamna changtuah a siam a, an sualzia leh chungpikziate a hriat chiantir a. Krista hriatna kawngah an rilru a tivar a, an duhthlannate chawk thovin, Isua Krista chu an Lalpa leh Chhandamtua pawm tura ngenin, pawm thei turin a pui a, anmahniah felna rah chi tinreng a thawk chhuak thin.


Pathianin Kristaah chuan mi zawng zawng hnenah chhandamna famkim chu a thlawnin a rawn hlan a, an sualte simtir leh Lal Isua Krista chu an chhandamtu atana ring tur te, Amah entawn a, Pathian duh ang taka inngaitlawm leh thianghlima nung tur tein thu a pe a. Krista chu ringa, a thu zawmtute chu chhandam an ni a, sual ngaihdamna te, thiam chantirna te, Pathian fa nihna te, Thlarau Thianghlim chanpuina azara tihthianghlimna te, chatuan ropuina te an chang a. Ringtute chuan tun dam chhung pawhin chhandam nih inhriat chianna lawmawm tak chu an chang thei a. Thlarau Thianghlim chuan khawngaihna hna a thawhin, Thu te, Sakramen te, |awngtaina te hi hmanruaah a hmang deuh bik thin a ni.


Krista din chhuah Sakramen-te chu Baptisma leh Lalpa Zanriah te hi an ni. Baptisma chu Pa leh Fapa leh Thlarau Thianghlim hminga tuia sil a ni. Hei hi Krista nena kan inzawmna te, Thlarau Thianghlim zara piantharna leh tihnunna chhinchhiahna leh nemnghehna a ni a, Lalpa hnena kan inhlanna thiltih a ni bawk. An sualte sim a, Krista chu an chhandamtu atan an ring tih puangtute leh an fate chantir tur a ni.

Lalpa Zanriah chu Krista thihna hriat reng nana chhang leh uain chan ho hi a ni a, ringtuten Krista thihnaa hlawkna an chan chhinchhiahna leh nemnghehna a ni. Ama mite chuan Amah leh a inhlanna an pawmzia te, an hlawkpuizia te, a rawngbawl tura an inpek zelna te, Amah an pawlna leh mi dang nena an inpawlna te entir nan, A lo kal leh hma loh chuan an chang ho thin tur a ni. Sakramen hlawknate chu Krista malsawmna avang leh rinnaa changtuah Thlarauvin a thawh avanga lo awm a ni.


Ringtu zawng zawng tih tur chu Kohhran inpawl honaa tel te, Krista Sakramen leh a thil serh dang vawn that te, A dan zawm te, tawngtai zel te, Lalpa Ni serh thianghlim te, Amah be ho tura inkhawm te, A thu hril ngun taka ngaihthlak te, Pathian malsawmna an dawn ang zela hlim taka pek ve thung te, anmahniho zingah leh mi zawng zawng zingah Krista nungchang ang tihlan te, khawvel puma Krista ram tizau tura beih te, ropui taka a lo kal lehna hun nghah te hi a ni.


Ni hnuhnungah chuan mitthite chu kaihthawhin an awm ang a, mi zawng zawng Krista rorelna thutphah hmaah an lang ang a, he dam chhunga an thiltih that leh that loh ang zelin relsak an ni ang. Ringlote leh mi sualte chuan thiam loh changin an sual hremna an tuar ang; Krista ring a, a thu zawmtute erawh chu a langchanga thiam chantirin an awm ang a, ropuinaa lawm luhin an awm ang.


Greek Text 

Πιστεύω εις Θεον Πατερα, παντοκράτορα, ποιητην ουρανου και γης.

Και (εις) `Ιησουν Χριστον, υίον αυτου τον μονογενη, τον κύριον ήμων, τον συλληφθέντα εκ πνεύματοσ άγίου, γεννηθέντα εκ Μαρίας της παρθένου, παθόντα επι Ποντίου Πιλάτου, σταυρωθέντα, θανόντα, και ταφέντα, κατελθόντα εις τα κατώτατα, τη Τρίτη `ημέρα `αναστάντα `απο των νεκρων, `ανελθόντα εις τους ουρανούς, καθεζόμενον εν δεξια θεου πατρος παντο δυνάμου, εκειθεν ερχόμενον κρϊναι ζωντας και νεκρούς. 

Πιστεύω εις το Πνυμα το `Αγιον, αγίαν καθολικην εκκλησίαν, αγίων κοινωνίαν, άφεσιν αμαρτιων, σαρκος ανάστασιν, ξωήν αιώνιον. Αμήν. 

Latin Text (ca. A.D. 700) 

Credo in Deum Patrem omnipotentem; Creatorem coeli et terrae. 

Et in Jesum Christum, Filium ejus unicum, Dominum nostrum; qui conceptus est de Spiritu Sancto, natus ex Maria virgine; passus sub Pontio Pilato, crucifixus, mortuus, et sepultus; descendit ad inferna; tertia die resurrexit a mortuis; ascendit ad coelos; sedet ad dexteram Dei Patris omnipotentis; inde venturus (est) judicare vivos et mortuos. 

Credo in Spiritum Sanctum; sanctam ecclesiam catholicam; sanctorum communionem; remissionem peccatorum; carnis resurrectionem; vitam oeternam. Amen.

Traditional English Version 

I believe in God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth. 

And in Jesus Christ his only Son our Lord; who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead, and buried; he descended into hell; the third day he rose again from the dead; he ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of God the Father Almighty; from thence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead. 

I believe in the Holy Ghost; the holy catholic Church; the communion of saints; the forgiveness of sins; the resurrection of the body; and the life everlasting. AMEN.

Modern English Version 

I believe in God, the Father almighty, 
creator of heaven and earth. 

I believe in Jesus Christ, God’s only Son, our Lord, 
who was conceived by the Holy Spirit, 
born of the Virgin Mary, 
suffered under Pontius Pilate, 
was crucified, died, and was buried; 
descended to the dead.  [See Calvin]
On the third day he rose again; 
he ascended into heaven, 
he is seated at the right hand of the Father, 
and he will come again to judge the living and the dead. 

I believe in the Holy Spirit, 
the holy catholic church, 
the communion of saints, 
the forgiveness of sins, 
the resurrection of the body, 
and the life everlasting. AMEN.


We believe in one God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible.

And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all worlds, God of God, Light of Light, Very God of Very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father by whom all things were made; who for us men, and for our salvation, came down from heaven, and was incarnate by the Holy Spirit of the Virgin Mary, and was made man, and was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate. He suffered and was buried, and the third day he rose again according to the Scriptures, and ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of the Father. And he shall come again with glory to judge both the quick and the dead, whose kingdom shall have no end.

And we believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and Giver of Life, who proceedeth from the Father and the Son, who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified, who spoke by the prophets. And we believe one holy catholic and apostolic Church. We acknowledge one baptism for the remission of sins. And we look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen.

International Consultation on English Texts translation
as printed in: The Lutheran Book of Worship The Book of Common Prayer (Episcopal)

We believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, of all that is, seen and unseen.  We believe in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the only Son of God, eternally begotten of the Father,

God from God, Light from Light, true God from true God, begotten, not made, of one Being with the Father. Through him all things were made.

For us and for our salvation he came down from heaven: by the power of the Holy Spirit he became incarnate from the Virgin Mary, and was made man. For our sake he was crucified under Pontius Pilate; he suffered death and was buried. On the third day he rose again in accordance with the Scriptures; he ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father. He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead, and his kingdom will have no end. 

We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, who proceeds from the Father and the Son.

With the Father and the Son he is worshiped and glorified. He has spoken through the Prophets.

We believe in one holy catholic and apostolic Church. We acknowledge one baptism for the forgiveness of sins. We look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen.

English Language Liturgical Commission translation

We believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, of all that is, seen and unseen.  We believe in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the only Son of God, eternally begotten of the Father,
God from God, light from light, true God from true God, begotten, not made, of one Being with the Father; through him all things were made. For us and for our salvation he came down from heaven,
was incarnate of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary and became truly human. For our sake he was crucified under Pontius Pilate; he suffered death and was buried. On the third day he rose again
in accordance with the Scriptures; he ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father. He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead, and his kingdom will have no end.  We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, who proceeds from the Father [and the Son], who with the Father and the Son is worshiped and glorified, who has spoken through the prophets. We believe in one holy catholic and apostolic Church. We acknowledge one baptism for the forgiveness of sins. We look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen.


CHAPTER I. Of the holy Scripture.

I. Although the light of nature, and the works of creation and providence, do so far manifest the goodness, wisdom, and power of God, as to leave men inexcusable; yet are they not sufficient to give that knowledge of God, and of his will, which is necessary unto salvation; therefore it pleased the Lord, at sundry times, and in divers manners, to reveal himself, and to declare that his will unto his Church; and afterwards for the better preserving and propagating of the truth, and for the more sure establishment and comfort of the Church against the corruption of the flesh, and the malice of Satan and of the world, to commit the same wholly unto writing; which maketh the holy Scripture to be most necessary; those former ways of God's revealing his will unto his people being now ceased.

II. Under the name of holy Scripture, or the Word of God written, are now contained all the Books of the Old and New Testament, which are these:

                        Of the Old Testament

        Genesis                            Ecclesiastes

        Exodus                             The Song of Songs

        Leviticus                          Isaiah

        Numbers                            Jeremiah

        Deuteronomy                        Lamentations

        Joshua                             Ezekiel

        Judges                             Daniel

        Ruth                               Hosea

        I Samuel                           Joel

        II Samuel                          Amos

        I Kings                            Obadiah

        II Kings                           Jonah

        I Chronicles                       Micah

        II Chronicles                      Nahum

        Ezra                               Habakkuk

        Nehemiah                           Zephaniah

        Esther                             Haggai

        Job                                Zechariah

        Psalms                             Malachi


                        Of the New Testament

        The Gospels according to           Thessalonians II

          Matthew                          To Timothy I

          Mark                             To Timothy II

          Luke                             To Titus

          John                             To Philemon

        The Acts of the Apostles           The Epistle to the

        Paul's Epistles to the Romans        Hebrews

        Corinthians I                      The Epistle of James

        Corinthians II                     The First and Second

        Galatians                            Epistles of Peter

        Ephesians                          The First, Second, and

        Philippians                          Third Epistles of John

        Colossians                         The Epistle of Jude

        Thessalonians I                    The Revelation

All which are given by inspiration of God, to be the rule of faith and life.

III. The books commonly called Apocrypha, not being of divine inspiration, are no part of the Canon of Scripture; and therefore are of no authority in the Church of God, nor to be any otherwise approved, or made use of, than other human writings.

IV. The authority of the holy Scripture, for which it ought to be believed and obeyed, dependeth not upon the testimony of any man or Church, but wholly upon God (who is truth itself), the Author thereof; and therefore it is to be received, because it is the Word of God.

V. We may be moved and induced by the testimony of the Church to an high and reverent esteem of the holy Scripture; and the heavenliness of the matter, the efficacy of the doctrine, the majesty of the style, the consent of all the parts, the scope of the whole (which is to give all glory to God), the full discovery it makes of the only way of man's salvation, the many other incomparable excellencies, and the entire perfection thereof, are arguments whereby it doth abundantly evidence itself to be the Word of God; yet, notwithstanding, our full persuasion and assurance of the infallible truth and divine authority thereof, is from the inward work of the Holy Spirit, bearing witness by and with the Word in our hearts.

VI. The whole counsel of God, concerning all things necessary for his own glory, man's salvation, faith, and life, is either expressly set down in Scripture, or by good and necessary consequence may be deduced from Scripture: unto which nothing at any time is to be added, whether by new revelations of the Spirit, or traditions of men. Nevertheless we acknowledge the inward illumination of the Spirit of God to be necessary for the saving understanding of such things as are revealed in the Word; and that there are some circumstances concerning the worship of God, and the government of the Church, common to human actions and societies, which are to be ordered by the light of nature and Christian prudence, according to the general rules of the Word, which are always to be observed.

VII. All things in Scripture are not alike plain in themselves, nor alike clear unto all; yet those things which are necessary to be known, believed, and observed, for salvation, are so clearly propounded and opened in some place of Scripture or other, that not only the learned, but the unlearned, in a due use of the ordinary means, may attain unto a sufficient understanding of them.

VIII. The Old Testament in Hebrew (which was the native language of the people of God of old), and the New Testament in Greek (which at the time of the writing of it was most generally known to the nations), being immediately inspired by God, and by his singular care and providence kept pure in all ages, are therefore authentical; so as in all controversies of religion the Church is finally to appeal unto them. But because these original tongues are not known to all the people of God who have right unto, and interest in, the Scriptures, and are commanded, in the fear of God, to read and search them, therefore they are to be translated into the language of every people unto which they come, that the Word of God dwelling plentifully in all, they may worship him in an acceptable manner, and, through patience and comfort of the Scriptures, may have hope.

IX. The infallible rule of interpretation of Scripture, is the Scripture itself; and therefore, when there is a question about the true and full sense of any scripture (which is not manifold, but one), it may be searched and known by other places that speak more clearly.

X. The Supreme Judge, by which all controversies of religion are to be determined, and all decress of councils, opinions of ancient writers, doctrines of men, and private spirits, are to be examined, and in whose sentence we are to rest, can be no other but the Holy Spirit speaking in the Scripture.

CHAPTER II. Of God, and of the Holy Trinity.

I. There is but one only living and true God, who is infinite in being and perfection, a most pure spirit, invisible, without body, parts, or passions, immutable, immense, eternal, incomprehensible, almighty, most wise, most holy, most free, most absolute, working all things according to the counsel of his own immutable and most righteous will, for his won glory, most loving, gracious, merciful, long-suffering, abundant in goodness and truth, forgiving iniquity, transgression, and sin; the rewarder of them that diligently seek him; and withal most just and terrible in his judgments; hating all sin; and who will by no means clear the guilty.

II. God hath all life, glory, goodness, blessedness, in and of himself; and is alone in and unto himself all-sufficient, not standing in need of any creatures which he hath made, nor deriving any glory from them, but only manifesting his own glory in, by, unto, and upon them; he is the alone foundation of all being, of whom, through whom, and to whom, are all things; and hath most sovereign dominion over them, to do by them, for them, or upon them, whatsoever himself pleaseth. In his sight all things are open and manifest; his knowledge is infinite, infallible, and independent upon the creature; so as nothing is to him contingent or uncertain. He is most holy in all his counsels, in all his works, and in all his commands. To him is due from angels and men, and every other creature, whatsoever worship, service, or obedience he is pleased to require of them.

III. In the unity of the Godhead there be three Persons of one substance, power, and eternity: God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost. The Father is of none, neither begotten nor proceeding; the Son is eternall begotten of the Father; the Holy Ghost eternally proceeding from the Father and the Son.

CHAPTER III. Of God's Eternal Decree.

I. God from all eternity did by the most and holy counsel of his own will, freely and unchangeably ordain whatsoever comes to pass; yet so as thereby neither is God the author of sin; nor is violence offered to the will of the creatures, nor is the liberty or contingency of second causes taken away, but rather established.

II. Although God knows whatsoever may or can come to pass, upon all supposed conditions; yet hath he not decreed any thing because he foresaw it as future, as that which would come to pass, upon such conditions.

III. By the decree of God, for the manifestation of his glory, some men and angels are predestinated unto everlasting life, and others foreordained to everlasting death.

IV. These angels and men, thus predestinated and foreordained, are particularly and unchangeably designed; and their number is so certain and definite that it can not be either increased or diminished.

V. Those of mankind that are predestinated unto life, God, before the foundation of the world was laid, according to his eternal and immutable purpose, and the secret counsel and good pleasure of his will, hath chosen in Christ, unto everlasting glory, out of his free grace and love alone, without any foresight of faith or good works, or perseverance in either of them, or any other thing in the creature, as conditions, or causes moving him thereunto; and all to the praise of his glorious grace.

VI. As God hath appointed the elect unto glory, so hath he, by the eternal and most free purpose of his will, foreordained all the means thereunto. Wherefore they who are elected being fallen in Adam are redeemed by Christ, are effectually called unto faith in Christ by his Spirit working in due season; are justified, adopted, sanctified, and kept by his power through faith unto salvation. Neither are any other redeemed by Christ, effectually called, justified, adopted, sanctified, and saved, but the elect only.

VII. The rest of mankind, God was pleased, according to the unsearchable counsel of his own will, whereby he extendeth or withholdeth mercy as he pleaseth, for the glory of his sovereign power over his creatures, to pass by, and to ordain them to dishonor and wrath for their sin, to the praise of his glorious justice.

VIII. The doctrine of this high mystery of predestination is to be handled with special prudence and care, that men attending to the will og God revealed in his Word, and yielding obedience thereunto, may, from the certainty of their effectual vocation, be assured of their eternal election. So shall this doctrine afford matter of praise, reverence, and admiration of God; and of humility, diligence, and abundant consolation to all that sincerely obey the gospel.

CHAPTER IV. Of Creation.

I. It pleased God the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, for the manifestation of the glory of his eternal power, wisdom, and goodness, in the beginning, to create or make of nothing the world, and all things therein, whether visible or invisible, in the space of six days, and all very good.

II. After God had made all other creatures, he created man, male and female, with reasonable and immortal souls, endued with knowledge, righteousness, and true holiness after his own image, having the law of God written in their hearts, and power to fulfill it; and yet under a possibility of transgressing, being left to the liberty of their own will, which was subject unto change. Besides this law written in their hearts, they received a command not to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil; which while they kept were happy in their communion with God, and had dominion over the creatures.

CHAPTER V. Of Providence.

I. God, the great Creator of all things, doth uphold, direct dispose, and govern all creatures, actions, and things, from the greatest even to the least, by his most wise and holy providence, according to his infallible foreknowledge, and the free and immutable counsel of his own will, to the praise of the glory of his wisdom, power, justice, goodness, and mercy.

II. Although in relation to the foreknowledge and decree of God, the first cause, all things come to pass immutably and infallibly, yet, by the same providence, he ordereth them to fall out according to the nature of second causes, either necessarily, freely, or contingently.

III. God, in his ordinary providence, maketh use of means, yet is free to work without, above, and against them, at his pleasure.

IV. The almighty power, unsearchable wisdom, and infinite goodness of God, so far manifest themselves in his providence, that it extendeth itself even to the first Fall, and all other sins of angels and men, and that not by a bare permission, but such as hath joined with it a most wise and powerful bounding, and otherwise ordering and governing of them, in a manifold dispensation, to his own holy ends; yet so, as the sinfulness thereof proceedeth only from the creature, and not from God; who being most holy and righteous, neither is nor can be the author or approver of sin.

V. The most wise, righteous, and gracious God, doth oftentimes leave for a season his own children to manifold temptations and the corruption of their own hearts, to chastise them for their former sins, or to discover unto them the hidden strength of corruption and deceitfulness of their hearts, that they may be humbled; and to raise them to a more close and constant dependence for their support upon himself, and to make them more watchful against all future occasions of sin, and for sundry other just and holy ends.

VI. As for those wicked and ungodly men whom God, as a righteous judge, for former sins, doth blind and harden; from them he not only withholdeth his grace, whereby they might have been enlightened in their understandings, and wrought upon their hearts; but sometimes also withdraweth the gifts which they had; and exposeth them to such objects as their corruption makes occasion of sin; and withal, gives them over to their own lusts, the temptatoins of the world, and the power of Satan; whereby it comes to pass that they harden themselves, even under those means which God useth for the softening of others.

VII. As the providence of God doth, in general, reach to all creatures, so, after a most special manner, it taketh care of his Church, and disposeth all things to the good thereof.

CHAPTER VI. Of the Fall of Man, of Sin, and of the Punishment thereof.

I. Our first parents, begin seduced by the subtilty and temptations of Satan, sinned in eating the forbidden fruit. This their sin God was pleased, according to his wise and holy counsel, to permit, having purposed to order it to his own glory.

II. By this sin they fell from their original righteousness and communion with God, and so became dead in sin, and wholly defiled in all the faculties and parts of soul and body.

III. They being the root of mankind, the guilt of this sin was imputed, and the same death in sin and corrupted nature conveyed to all their posterity, descending from them by original generation.

IV. From this original corruption, whereby we are utterly indisposed, disabled, and made opposite to all good, and wholly inclined to all evil, do proceed all actual transgressions.

V. This corruption of nature, during this life, doth remain in those that are regenerated; and although it be through Christ pardoned and mortified, yet both itself, and all the motions thereof, are truly and properly sin.

VI. Every sin, both original and actual, being a transgression of the righteous law of God, and contrary thereunto, doth, in its own nature, bring guilt upon the sinner, whereby he is bound over to the wrath of God, and curse of the law, and so made subject to death, with all miseries spiritual, temporal, and eternal.

CHAPTER VII. Of God's Covenant with Man.

I. The distance between God and the creature is so great, that although reasonable creatures do owe obedience unto him as their Creator, yet they could never have any fruition of him, as their blessedness and reward, but by some voluntary condescencion on God's part, which he hath been pleased to express by way of covenant.

II. The first covenant made with man was a covenant of works, wherein life was promised to Adam, and in him to his posterity, upon condition of perfect and personal obedience.

III. Man by his fall having made himself incapable of life by that covenant, the Lord was pleased to make a second, commonly called the covenant of grace: wherein he freely offered unto sinners life and salvation by Jesus Christ, requiring of them faith in him, that they may be saved, and promising to give unto all those that are ordained unto life, his Holy Spirit, to make them willing and able to believe.

IV. This covenant of grace is frequently set forth in the Scripture by the name of a testament, in reference to the death of Jesus Christ, the testator, and to the everlasting inheritance, with all things belonging to it, therein bequeathed.

V. This covenant was differently administered in the time of the law, and in the time of the gospel: under the law it was administered by promises, prophecies, sacrifices, circumcision, the paschal lamb, and other types and ordinances delivered to the people of the Jews, all fore-signifying Christ to come, which were for that time sufficient and efficacious, through the operation of the Spirit, to instruct and build up the elect in faith in the promised Messiah, by whom they had full remission of sins, and eternal salvation, and is called the Old Testament.

VI. Under the gospel, when Christ the substance was exhibited, the ordinances in which this covenant is dispensed, are the preaching of the Word, and the administration of the sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's Supper; which, though fewer in number, and administered with more simplicity and less outward glory, yet in them it is held forth in more fulness, evidence, and spiritual efficacy, to all nations, both Jews and Gentiles; and is called the New Testament. There are not, therefore, two covenants of grace differing in substance, but one and the same under various dispensations.

CHAPTER VIII. Of Christ the Mediator.

I. It pleased God, in his eternal purpose, to choose and ordain the Lord Jesus, his only-begotten Son, to be the Mediator between God and men, the prophet, priest, and king; the head and Savior of the Church, the heir or all things, and judge of the world; unto whom he did, from all eternity, give a people to be his seed, and to be by him in time redeemed, called, justified, sanctified, and glorified.

II. The Son of God, the second Person in the Trinity, being very and eternal God, of one substance, and equal with the Father, did, when the fullness of time was come, take upon him man's nature, with all the essential properties and common infirmities thereof; yet without sin: being conceived by he power of the Holy Ghost, in the womb of the Virgin Mary, of her substance. So that two whole, perfect, and distinct natures, the Godhead and the manhood, were inseparably joined together in one person, without conversion, composition, or confusion. Which person is very God and very man, yet one Christ, the only Mediator between God and man.

III. The Lord Jesus in his human nature thus united to the divine, was sanctified and anointed with the Holy Spirit above measure; having in him all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge, in whom it pleased the Father that all fullness should dwell: to the end that being holy, harmless, undefiled, and full of grace and truth, he might be thoroughly furnished to execute the office of a Mediator and Surety. Which office he took not unto himself, but was thereunto called by his Father; who put all power and judgment into his hand, and gave him commandment to execute the same.

IV. This office the Lord Jesus did most willingly undertake, which, that he might discharge, he was made under the law, and did perfectly fulfill it; endured most grievous torments immediately in his soul, and most painful sufferings in his body; was crucified and died; was buried, and remained under the power of death, yet saw no corruption. On the third day he arose from the dead, with the same body in which he suffered; with which also he ascended into heaven, and there sitteth at the right hand of his Father, making intercession; and shall return to judge men and angels, at the end of the world.

V. The Lord Jesus, by his perfect obedience and sacrifice of himself, which he through the eternal Spirit once offered up unto God, hath fully satisfied the justice of his Father; and purchased not only reconciliation, but an everlasting inheritance in the kingdom of heaven, for all those whom the Father hath given unto him.

VI. Although the work of redemption was not actually wrought by Christ till after his incarnation, yet the virtue, efficacy, and benefits thereof were communicated into the elect, in all ages successively from the beginning of the world, in and by those promises, types, and sacrifices wherein he was revealed, and signified to be the seed of the woman, which should bruise the serpant's head, and the Lamb slain from the beginning of the world, being yesterday and today the same and for ever.

VII. Christ, in the work of mediation, acteth according to both natures; by each nature doing that which is proper to itself; yet by reason of the unity of the person, that which is proper to one nature is sometimes, in Scripture, attributed to the person denominated by the other nature.

VIII. To all those for whom Christ hath purchased redemption, he doth certainly and effectually apply and communicate the same; making intercession for them, and revealing unto them, in and by the Word, the mysteries of salvation; effectually persuading them by his Spirit to believe and obey; and governing their hearts by his Word and Spirit; overcoming all their enemies by his almighty power and wisdon, in such manner and ways as are most consonant to his wonderful and unsearchable dispensation.

CHAPTER IX. Of Free Will.

I. God hath endued the will of man with that natural liberty, that is neither forced, nor by any absolute necessity of nature determined to good or evil.

II. Man, in his state of innocency, had freedom and power to will and to do that which is good and well-pleasing to God; but yet mutably, so that he might fall from it.

III. Man, by his fall into a state of sin, hath wholly lost all ability of will to any spiritual good accompanying salvation; so as a natural man, being altogether averse from that good, and dead in sin, is not able, by his own strength, to convert himself, or to prepare himself thereunto.

IV. When God converts a sinner and translates him into the state of grace, he freeth him from his natural bondage under sin, and, by his grace alone, enables him freely to will and to do that which is spiritually good; yet so as that, by reason of his remaining corruption, he doth not perfectly, nor only, will that which is good, but doth also will that which is evil.

V. The will of man is made perfectly and immutable free to good alone, in the state of glory only.

CHAPTER X. Of Effectual Calling.

I. All those whom God hath predestinated unto life, and those only, he is pleased, in his appointed and accepted time, effectually to call, by his Word and Spirit, out of that state of sin and death in which they are by nature, to grace and salvation by Jesus Christ: enlightening their minds, spiritually and savingly, to understand the things of God, taking away their heart of stone, and giving unto them an heart of flesh; renewing their wills, and by his almighty power determining them to that which is good; and effectually drawing them to Jesus Christ; yet so as they come most freely, being made willing by his grace.

II. This effectual call is of God's free and special grace alone, not from any thing at all foreseen in man, who is altogether passive therein, until, being quickened and renewed by the Holy Spirit, he is thereby enabled to answer this call, and to embrace the grace offered and conveyed in it.

III. Elect infants, dying in infance, are regenerated and saved by Christ through the Spirit, who worketh when, and where, and how he pleaseth. So also are all other elect persons who are incapable of being outwardly called by the ministry of the Word.

IV. Others, not elected, although they may be called by the ministry of the Word, and may have some common operations of the Spirit, yet they never truly come to Christ, and therefore can not be saved: much less can men, not professing the Christian religion, be saved in any other way whatsoever, be they never so diligent to frame their lives according to the light of nature, and the law of that religion they do profess; and to assert and maintain that they may is without warrant of the Word of God.

CHAPTER XI. Of Justification.

I. Those whom God effectually calleth, he also freely justifieth: not by infusing righteousness into them, but by pardoning their sins, and by accounting and accepting their persons as righteous; not for any thing wrought in them, or done by them, but for Christ's sake alons; not by imputing faith itself, the act of believing, or any other evangelical obedience to them, as their righteousness; but by imputing the obedience and satisfaction of Christ unto them, they receiving and resting on him and his righteousness by faith; which faith they have not of themselves, it is the gift of God.

II. Faith, thus receiving and resting on Christ and his righteousness, is the alone instrument of justification; yet is it not alone in the person justified, but is ever accompanied with all other saving graces, and is no dead faith, but worketh by love.

III. Christ, by his obedience and death, did fully discharge the debt of all those that are thus justified, and did make a proper, real, and full satisfaction o his Father's justice in their behalf. Yet inasmuch as he was given by the Father for them, and his obedience and satisfaction accepted in their stead, and both freely, not for any thing in them, their justification is only of free grace, that both the exact justice and rich grace of God might be glorified in the justification of sinners.

IV. God did, from all eternity, decree to justify the elect; and Christ did, in the fullness of time, die for their sins and rise again for their justification; nevertheless they are not justified until the Holy Spirit doth, in due time, actually apply Christ unto them.

V. God doth continue to forgive the sins of those that are justified; and although they can never fall from the state of justification, yet they may by their sins fall under God's Fatherly displeasure, and not have the light of his countenance restored unto them, until they humble themselves, confess their sins, beg pardon, and renew their faith and repentance.

VI. The justification of believers under the Old Testament was, in all these respect, one and the same with the justification of believers under the New Testament.

CHAPTER XII. Of Adoption.

All those that are justified, God vouchsafeth, in and for his only Son Jesus Christ, to make partakers of the grace of adoption: by which they are taken into the number, and enjoy the liberties and privileges of the children of God; have his name put upon them; receive the Spirit of adoption; have access to the throne of grace with boldness; are enabled to cry, Abba, Father; are pitied, protected, provided for, and chastened by his as by a father; yet never cast off, but sealed to the day of redemption, and inherit the promises, as heirs of everlasting salvation.

CHAPTER XIII. Of Sanctification.

I. They who are effectually called and regenerated, having a new heart and a new spirit created in them, are further sanctified, really and personally, through the virtue of Christ's death and resurrection, by his Word and Spirit dwelling in them; the dominion of the whole body of sin is destroyed, and the several lusts thereof are more and more weakened and mortified, and they more and more quickened and strengthened, in all saving graces, to the practice of true holiness, without which no man shall see the Lord.

II. This sanctification is throughout in the whole man, yet imperfect in this life: there abideth still some remnants of corruption in every part, whence ariseth a continual and irreconcilable war, the flesh lusting against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh.

III. In which war, although the remaining corruption for a time may much prevail, yet, through the continual supply of strength rom the sanctifying Spirit of Christ, the regerate part doth overcome: and so the saints grow in grace, perfecting holiness in the fear of God.

CHAPTER XIV. Of Saving Faith.

I. The grace of faith, whereby the elect are enabled to believe to the saving of their souls, is the work of the Spirit of Christ in their hearts; and is ordinarily wrought by the ministry of the Word: by which also, and by the administration of the sacraments, and prayer, it is increased and strengthened.

II. By this faith, a Christian believeth to be true whatesoever is revealed in the Word, for the authority of god himself speaking therein; and acteth differently, upon that which each particular passage thereof containeth; yielding obedience to the commands, trembling at the threatenings, and embracing the promises of God for this life, and that which is to come. But the principle acts of saving faith are, accepting, receiving, and resting upon Christ alone for justification, sanctification, and eternal life, by virtue of the covenant of grace.

III. This faith is different in degrees, weak or strong; may be often and many ways assailed and weakened, but gets the victory; growing up in many to the attainment of a full assurance through Christ, who is both the author and finisher of our faith.

CHAPTER XV. Of Repentance Unto Life.

I. Repentance unto life is an evangelical grace, the doctrine whereof is to be preached by every minister of the gospel, as well as that of faith in Christ.

II. By it a sinner, out of the sight and sense, not only of the danger, but also of the filthiness and odiousness of his sins, as contrary to the holy nature and righteous law of God, and upon the apprehension of his mercy in Christ to such as are penitent, so grieves for, and hates his sins, as to turn from them all unto God, purposing and endeavoring to walk with him in all the ways of his commandments.

III. Although repentance be not to be rested in as any satisfaction for sin, or any cause of the pardon thereof, which is the act of God's free grace in Christ; yet is it of such necessity to all sinners, that none may expect pardon without it.

IV. As there is no sin so small but it deserves damnation; so there is no sin so great that it can bring damnation upon those who truly repent.

V. Men ought not to content themselves with a general repentance, but it is every man's duty to endeavor to repent of his particular sins, particularly.

VI. As every man is bound to make private confession of his sins to God, praying for the pardon thereof, upon which, and the forsaking of them, he shall find mercy: so he that scandelizeth his brother, or the Church of Christ, ought to be willing, by a private or public confession and sorrow for his sin, to declare his repentance to those that are offended; who are thereupon to be reconciled to him, and in love to receive him.

CHAPTER XVI. Of Good Works.

I. Good works are only such as God hath commanded in his holy Word, and not such as, without the warrant thereof, are devised by men out of blind zeal, or upon any pretense of good intention.

II. These good works, done in obedience to God's commandments, are the fruits and evidences of a true and lively faith: and by them believers manifest their thankfulness, strengthen their assurance, edify their brethren, adorn the profession of the gospel, stop the mouths of the adversaries, and glorify God, whose workmanship they are, created in Christ Jesus thereunto, that, having their fruit unto holiness, they may have the end, eternal life.

III. Their ability to do good works is not at all of themselves, but wholly from the Spirit of Christ. And that they may be enabled thereunto, besides the graces they have already received, there is required an actual influence of the same Holy Spirit to work in them to will and to do of his good pleasure; yet are they not hereupon to grow negligent, as if they were not bound to perform any duty unless upon a special motion of the Spirit; but they ought to be diligent in stirring up the grace of God that is in them.

IV. They, who in their obedience, attain to the greatest height which is possible in this life, are so far from being able to supererogate and to do more than God requires, that they fall short of much which in duty they are bound to do.

V. We can not, by our best works, merit pardon of sin, or eternal life, at the hand of God, because of the great disproportion that is between them and the glory to come, and the infinite distance that is between us and God, whom by them we can neither profit, nor satisfy for the debt of our former sins; but when we have done all we can, we have done but our duty, and are unprofitable servants: and because, as they are good, they proceed from his Spirit; and as they are wrought by us, they are defiled and mixed with so much weakness and imperfection that they can not endure the severity of God's judgment.

VI. Yet notwithstanding, the persons of believers being accepted through Christ, their good works also are accepted in him, not as though they were in this life wholly unblamable and unreprovable in God's sight; but that he, looking upon them in his Son, is pleased to accept and reward that which is sincere, although accompanied with many weaknesses and imperfections.

VII. Works done by unregenerate men, although for the matter of them they may be things which God commands, and of good use both to themselves and others; yet, because they proceed not from a heart purified by faith; nor are done in a right manner, according to the Word; nor to a right end, the glory of God; they are therefore sinful and can not please God, or make a man meet to receive grace from God. And yet their neglect of them is more sinful, and displeasing unto God.

CHAPTER XVII. Of The Perseverance of the Saints.

I. They whom God hath accepted in his Beloved, effectually called and sanctified by his Spirit, can neither totally nor finally fall away from the state of grace; but shall certainly persevere therein to the end, and be eternally saved.

II. This perseverance of the saints depends, not upon their own free-will, but upon the immutability of the decree of election, flowing from the free and unchangeable love of God the Father; upon the efficacy of the merit and intercession of Jesus Christ; the abiding of the Spirit and of the seed of God within them; and the nature of the covenant of grace; from all which ariseth also the certainty and infallibility thereof.

III. Nevertheless they may, through the temptations of Satan and of the world, the prevelancy of corruption remaining in them, and the neglect of the means of their perseverance, fall into grievous sins; ad for a time continue therein: whereby they incur God's displeasure, and grieve his Holy Spirit; come to be deprived of some measure of their graces and comforts; have their hearts hardened, and their consciences wounded; hurt and scandalize others, and bring temporal judgments upon theselves.

CHAPTER XVIII. Of the Assurance of Grace and Salvation.

I. Although hypocrites, and other unregenerate men, may vainly deceive themselves with false hopes and carnal presumptions: of being in the favor of God and estate of salvation; which hope of theirs shall perish: yet such as truly believe in the Lord Jesus, and love him in sincerity, endeavoring to walk in all good conscience before him, may in this life be certainly assured that they are in a state of grace, and may rejoice in the hope of the glory of God: which hope shall never make them ashamed.

II. This certainty is not a bare conjectural and probably persuasion, grounded upon a fallible hope; but an infallible assurance of faith, founded upon the divine truth of the promises of salvation, the inward evidence of those graces unto which these promises are made, the testimony of the Spirit of adoption witnessing with our spirits that we are the children of God; which Spirit is the earnest of our inheritance, whereby we are sealed to the day of redemption.

III. This infallible assurance doth not so belong to the essence of faith but that a true believer may wait long and conflict with many difficulties before he be partaker of it: yet, being enabled by the Spirit to know the things which are freely given him of God, he may, without extraordinary revelation, in the right use of ordinary means, attain thereunto. And therefore it is the duty of everyone to give all diligence to make his calling and election sure; that thereby his heart may be enlarged in peace and joy in the Holy Ghost, in love and thankfulness to God, and in strength and cheerfulness in the duties of obedience, the proper fruits of this assurance: so far is it from inclining men to looseness.

IV. True believers may have the assurance of their salvation divers ways shaken, diminished, and intermitted; as, by negligence in preserving of it; by falling into some special sin, which woundeth the conscience, and grievth the Spirit; by some sudden or vehement temptation; by God's withdrawing the light of his countenance and suffering even such as fear him to walk in darkness and to have no light: yet are they never utterly destitute of that seed of God, and life of faith, that love of Christ and the brethren, that sincerity of heart and conscience of duty, out of which, by the operation of the Spirit, this assurance may in due time be revived, and by the which, in the meantime, they are supported from utter despair.

CHAPTER XIX. Of the Law of God.

I. God gave to Adam a law, as a covenant of works, by which he bound him and all his posterity to personal, entire, exact, and perpetual obedience; promised life upon the fulfilling, and threatened death upon the breach of it; and endued him with power and ability to keep it.

II. This law, after his Fall, continued to be a perfect rule of righteousness; and, as such, was delivered by God upon mount Sinai in ten commandments, and written in two tables; the first four commandments containing our duty toward God, and the other six our duty to man.

III. Besides this law, commonly called moral, God was pleased to give to the people of Israel, as a Church under age, ceremonial laws, containing several typical ordinances, partly of worship, prefiguring Christ, his graces, actions, sufferings, and benefits; and partly holding forth divers instructions of moral duties. All which ceremonial laws are now abrogated under the New Testament.

IV. To them also, as a body politic, he gave sundry judicial laws, which expired together with the state of that people, not obliging any other, now, further than the general equity thereof may require.

V. The moral law doth forever bind all, as well justified persons as others, to the obedience thereof; and that not only in regard of the matter contained in it, but also in respect of the authority of God the Creator who gave it. Neither doth Christ in the gospel any way dissolve, but much strengthen, this obligation.

VI. Although true believers be not under the law as a covenant of works, to be thereby justified or condemned; yet is it of great use to them, as well as to others; in that, as a rule of life, informing them of the will of God and their duty, it directs and binds them to walk accordingly; discovering also the sinful pollutions of their nature, hearts, and lives; so as, examining themselves thereby, they may come to further conviction of, humiliation for, and hatred against sin; together with a clearer sight of the need they have of Christ, and the perfection of his obedience. It is likewise of use to the regenerate, to restrain their corruptions, in that it forbids sin, and the threatenings of it serve to show what even their sins deserve, and what afflictions in this life they may expect for them, although freed from the curse thereof threatened in the law. The promises of it, in like manner, show them God's approbation of obedience, and what blessings they may expect upon the performance thereof; although not as due to them by the law as a covenant of works: so as a man's doing good, and refraining from evil, because the law encourageth to the one, and deterreth from the other, is no evidence of his being under the law, and not under grace.

VII. Neither are the forementioned uses of the law contrary to the grace of the gospel, but do sweetly comply with it: the Spirit of Christ subduing and enabling the will of man to do that freely and cheerfully, which the will of God, revealed in the law, requireth to be done.

CHAPTER XX. Of Christian Liberty, and Liberty of Conscience.

I. The liberty which Christ hath purchased for believers under the gospel consists in their freedom from the guilt of sin, the condemning wrath of God, the curse of the moral law; and in their being delivered from thos present evil world, bondage to Satan, and dominion of sin, from the evil of afflictions, the sting of death, the victory of the grave, and everlasting damnation; as also in their free access to God, and their yielding obedience unto him, not out of slavish fear, but a childlike love, and a willing mind. All which were common also to believers under the law; but under the New Testament the liberty of Christians is further enlarged in their freedom from the yoke of the ceremonial law, to which the Jewish Church was subjected; and in greater boldness of access to the throne of grace, and in fuller communications of the free Spirit of God, than believers under the law did ordinarily partake of.

II. God alone is Lord of the conscience, and hath left it free from the doctrines and commandments of men which are in any thing contrary to his Word, or beside it in matters of faith on worship. So that to believe such doctrines, or to obey such commandments out of conscience, is ts betray true liberty of conscience; and the requiring an implicit faith, and an absolute and blind obedience, is to destroy liberty of conscience, and reason also.

III. They who, upon pretense of Christian liberty, do practice any sin, or cherish any lust, do thereby destroy the end of Christian liberty; which is, that, being delivered out of the hands of our enemies, we might serve the Lord without fear, in holiness and righteousness before him, all the days of our life.

IV. And because the powers which God hath ordained, and the liberty which Christ hath purchased, are not intended by God to destroy, but mutually to uphold and preserve one another; they who, upon pretense of Christian liberty, shall oppose any lawful power, or the lawful exercise of it, whether it be civil or ecclesiastical, resist the ordinance of God. And for their publishing of such opinions, or maintaining of such practices, as are contrary to the light of nature, or to the known principles of Christianity, whether concerning faith, worship, or conversation; or to the power of godliness; or such erroneous opinions or practices as, either in their own nature, or in the manner of publishing or maintaining them, are destructive to the external peace and order which Christ hath established in the Church: they may be lawfully called to account, and proceeded against by the censures of the Church, and by the power of the Civil Magistrate.

CHAPTER XXI. Of Religious Worship and the Sabbath-day.

I. The light of nature showeth that there is a God, who hath lordship and sovereignty over all; is good, and doeth good unto all; and is therefore to be feared, loved, praised, called upon, trusted in, and served with all the hearth, and with all the soul, and with all the might. But the acceptable way of worshipping the true God is instituted by himself, and so limited by his own revealed will, that he may not be worshipped according to the imaginations and devices of men, or the suggestions of Satan, under any visible representation or any other way not prescribed in the holy Scripture.

II. Religious worship is to be given to God, the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; and to him alone: not to angels, saints, or any other creature: and since the Fall, not without a Mediator; nor in the mediation of any other but of Christ alone.

III. Prayer with thanksgiving, being one special part of religious worship, is by God required of all men; and that it may be accepted, it is to be made in the name of the Son, by the help of his Holy Spirit, according to his will, with understanding, reverence, humility, fervency, faith, love, and perseverance; and, if vocal, in a known tongue.

IV. Prayer is to be made for things lawful, and for all sorts of men living, or that shall live hereafter; but not for the dead, nor for those of whom it may be known that they have sinned the sin unto death.

V. The reading of the Scriptures with godly fear; the sound preaching, and conscionable hearing of the Word, in obedience unto God with understanding, faith, and reverence; singing of psalms with grace in the heart; as, also, the due administration and worthy receiving of the sacraments instituted by Christ; are all parts of the ordinary religious worship of God: besides religious oaths, and vows, solemn fastings, and thanksgivings upon special occasion; which are, in their several times and seasons, to be used in an holy and religious manner.

VI. Neither prayer, nor any other part of religious worship, is now, under the gospel, either tied unto, or made more acceptable to, any place in which it is performed, or towards which it is directed: but God is to be worshipped everywhere in spirit and in truth; as in private families daily, and in secret each one by himself, so more solemnly in the public assemblies, which are not carelessly or willfully to be neglected or forsaken, when God, by his Word or providence, calleth thereunto.

VII. As it is of the law of nature, that, in general, a due proportion of time be set apart for the worship of God; so, in his Word, by a positive, moral, and perpetual commandment, binding all men in all ages, he hath particularly appointed one day in seven for a Sabbath, to be kept holy unto him: which, from the beginning of the world to the resurrection of Christ, was the last day of the week; and, from the resurrection of Christ, was changed into the first day of the week, which in Scripture is called the Lord's Day, and is to be continued to the end of the world as the Christian Sabbath.

VIII. This Sabbath is to be kept holy unto the Lord when men, after a due preparing of their hearts, and ordering of their common affairs beforehand, do not only observe an holy rest all the day from their own works, words, and thoughts about their wordly employments and recreations; but also are taken up the whole time in the public and private exercises of his worship, and in the duties of necessity and mercy.

CHAPTER XXII. Of Lawful Oaths and Vows.

I. A lawful oath is a part of religious worship, wherein upon just occasion, the person swearing solemnly calleth God to witness what he asserteth or promiseth; and to judge him according to the truth or falsehood of what he sweareth.

II. The name of God only is that by which men ought to swear, and therein it is to be used with all holy fear and reverence; therefore to swear vainly or rashly by that glorious and dreadful name, or to swear at all by any other thing, is sinful, and to be abhorred. Yet, as, in matters of weight and moment, an oath is warranted by the Word of God, under the New Testament, as well as under the Old, so a lawful oath, being imposed by lawful authority, in such matters ought to be taken.

III. Whosoever taketh an oath ought duly to consider the weightiness of so solemn an act, and therein to avouch nothing but what he is fully persuaded is the truth. Neither may any man bind himself by oath to any thing but what is good and just, and what he believeth so to be, and what he is able and resolved to perform. Yet it is a sin to refuse an oath touching any thing that is good and just, being imposed by lawful authority.

IV. An oath is to be taken in the plain and common sense of the words, without equivocation or mental reservation. It can not oblige to sin; but in any thing not sinful, being taken, it binds to performance, although to a man's own hurt: nor is it to be violated, although made to heretics or infidels.

V. A vow is of the like nature with a promissory oath, and ought to be made with the like religious care, and to be performed with the like faithfulness.

VI. It is not to be made to any creature, but to God alone: and that it may be accepted, it is to be made voluntarily, out of faith and conscience of duty, in way of thankfulness for mercy received, or for obtaining of what we want; whereby we more strictly bind ourselves to necessary duties, or to other things, so far and so long as they may fitly conduce thereunto.

VII. No man may vow to do any thing forbidden in the Word of God, or what would hinder any duty therein commanded, or which is not in his own power, and for the performance of which he hath no promise or ability from God. In which respects, monastical vows of perpetual single life, professed poverty, and regular obedience, are so far from being degrees of higher perfection, that they are superstitious and sinful snares, in which no Christian may entangle himself.

CHAPTER XXIII. Of the Civil Magistrate.

I. God, the Supreme Lord and King of all the world, hath ordained civil magistrates to be under him over the people, for his own glory and the public good; and to this end, hath armed them with the power of the sword, for the defense and encouragement of them that are good, and for the punishment of evil-doers.

II. It is lawful for Christians to accept and execute the office of a magistrate when called thereunto; in the managing whereof, as they ought especially to maintain piety, justice, and peace, according to the wholesome laws of each commonwealth, so, for that end, they may lawfully, now under the New Testament, wage war upon just and necessary occasions.

III. Civil magistrates may not assume to themselves the administration of the Word and Sacraments; or the power of the keys of the kingdom of heaven; or, in the least, interfere in matters of faith. Yet, as nursing fathers, it is the duty of civil magistrates to protect the Church of our common Lord, without giving the preference to any denomination of Christians above the rest, in such a manner that all ecclesiastical persons whatever shall enjoy the full, free, and unquestioned liberty of discharging every aprt of their sacred functions, without violence or danger. And, as Jesus Christ hath appointed a regular government and discipline in his Church, no law of any commonwealth should interfere with, let, or hinder, the due exercise thereof, among the voluntary members of any denomination of Christians, according to their own profession of belief. It is the duty of civil magistrates to protect the person and good name of all their people, in such an effectual manner as that no person be suffered, either upon pretense of religion or infidelity, to offer any indignity, violence, abuse, or injury to any other person whatsoever: and to take order, that all religious and ecclesiastical assemblies be held without molestation or disturbance.

IV. It is the duty of the people to pray for magistrates, to honor their persons, to pay them tribute and other dues, to obey their lawful commands, and to be subject to their authority, for conscience' sake. Infidelity, or difference in religion, doth not make boid the magistrate's just and legal authority, nor free the people from their obedience to him: from which ecclesiastical persons are not exempted; much less hath the Pope any power or jurisdiction over them in their dominions, or over any of their people; and least of all to deprive them of their dominions or lives, if he shall judge them to be heretics, or upon any other pretense whatsoever.

CHAPTER XXIV. Of Marriage and Divorce.

I. Marriage is to be between one man and one woman: neither is it lawful for any man to have more than one wife, nor for any woman to have more than one husband at the same time.

II. Marriage was ordained for the mutual help of husband and wife; for the increase of mankind with a legitimate issue, and of the Church with an holy seed; and for preventing of uncleanness.

III. It is lawful for all sorts of people to marry who are able with judgment to give their consent. Yet it is the duty of Christians to marry only in the Lord. And, therefore, such as profess the true reformed religion should not marry with infidels, Papists, or other idolaters: neither should such as are godly be unequally yoked, by marrying with such as are notoriously wicked in their life, or maintain damnable heresies.

IV. Marriage ought not to be within the degrees of consanguinity or affinity forbidden in the Word; nor can such incestuous marriages ever be made lawful by any law of man, or consent of parties, so as those persons may live together, as man and wife. The man may not marry any of his wife's kindred nearer in blood than he may of his own, nor the woman of her husband's kindred nearer in blood than of her own.

V. Adultery or fornication, committed after a contract, being detected before marriage, giveth just occasion to the innocent party to dissolve that contract. In the case of adultery after marriage, it is lawful for the innocent party to sue out a divorce, and after the divorce to marry another, as if the offending party were dead.

VI. Although the corruption of man be such as is apt to study arguments, unduly to put asunder those whom God hath joined together in marriage; yet nothing but adultery, or such willful desertion as can no way be remedied by the Church or civil magistrate, is cause sufficient of dissolving the bond of marriage; wherein a public and orderly course of proceeding is to be observed; and the persons concerned in it, not left to their own wills and discretion in their own case.

CHAPTER XXV. Of the Church.

I. The catholic or universal Church, which is invisible, consists of the whole number of the elect, that have been, are, or shall be gathered into one, under Christ the head thereof; and is the spouse, the body, the fullness of Him that filleth all in all.

II. The visible Church, which is also catholic or universal under the gospel (not confined to one nation as before under the law), consists of all those throughout the world that profess the true religion, together with their children; and is the Kingdom of the Lord Jesus Christ; the house and family of God, through which men are ordinarily saved and union with which is essential to their best growth and service.

III. Unto this catholic and visible Church, Christ hath given the ministry, oracles, and ordinances of God, for the gathering and perfecting of the saints, in this life, to the end of the world; and doth by his own presence and Spirit, according to his promise, make them effectual thereunto.

IV. This catholic Church hath been sometimes more, sometimes less, visible. And particular Churches, which are members thereof, are more or less pure, according as the doctrine of the gospel is taught and embraced, ordinances administered, and public worship performed more or less purely in them.

V. The purest Churches under heaven are subject both to mixture and error: and some have so degenerated as to become apparently no Churches of Christ. Nevertheless, there shall be always a Church on earth, to worship God according to his will.

VI. There is no other head of the Church but the Lord Jesus Christ: nor can the Pope of Rome in any sense be head thereof; but is that Antichrist, that man of sin and son of perdition, that exalteth himself in the Church against Christ, and all that is called God.

CHAPTER XXVI. Of the Communion of the Saints.

I. All saints that are united to Jesus Christ their head, by his Spirit and by faith, have fellowship with him in his graces, sufferings, death, resurrection, and glory: and, being united to one another in love, they have communion in each other's gifts and graces, and are obliged to the performance of such duties, public and private, as to conduce to their mutual good, both in the inward and outward man.

II. Saints by profession, are bound to maintain an holy fellowship and communion in the worship of God, and in performing such other spiritual services as tend to their mutual edification; as also in relieving each other in outward things, according to their several abilities and necesities. Which communion, as God offereth opportunity, is to be extended unto all those who, in every place, call upno the name of the Lord Jesus.

III. This communion which the saints have with Christ, doth not make them in any wise partakers of the substance of the Godhead, or to be equal with Christ in any respect: either of which to affirm, is impious and blasphemous. Nor doth their communion one with another as saints, take away or infringe the title or property which each man hath in his goods and possessions.

CHAPTER XXVII. Of the Sacraments.

I. Sacraments are holy signs and seals of the covenant of grace, immediately instituted by God, to represent Christ and his benefits, and to confirm our interest in him: as also to put a visible difference between those that belong unto the Church, and the rest of thw world; and solemnly to engage them to the service of God in Christ, according to his Word.

II. There is in every sacrament a spiritual relation, or sacramental union, between the sign and the thing signified; whence it comes to pass that the names and effects of the one are attributed to the other.

III. The grace which is exhibited in or by the sacraments, rightly used, is not conferred by any power in them; neither doth the efficacy of a sacrament depend upon the piety or intention of him that doth administer it, but upon the work of the Spirit, and the word of institution, which conatins, together with a precept authorizing the use thereof, a promise of benefit to worthy receivers.

IV. There be only two sacraments ordained by Christ our Lord in the gospels, that is to say, Baptism and the Supper of the Lord: neither or which may be dispensed by any but a minister of the Word, lawfully ordained.

V. The sacraments of the Old Testament, in regard of the spiritual things thereby signified and exhibited, were, for substance, the same with those of the New.


I. Baptism is a sacrament of the New Testament, ordained by Jesus Christ, not only for the solemn admission of the party baptized into the visible Church, but also to be unto him a sign and seal of the covenant of grace, or his ingrafting into Christ, of regeneration, of remission of sins, and of his giving up unto God, through Jesus Christ, to walk in newness of life: which sacrament is, by Christ's own appointment, to be continued in his Churchy until the end of the world.

II. The outward element to be used in the sacrament is water, wherewith the party is to be baptized in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, by a minister of the gospel, lawfully called thereunto.

III. Dipping of the person into the water is not necessary; but baptism is rightly administered by pouring or sprinkling water upon the person.

IV. Not only those that do actually profess faith in and obedience unto Christ, but also the infants of one or both believing parents are to be baptized.

V. Although it be a great sin to contemn or neglect this ordinance, yet grace and salvation are not so inseparably annexed unto it as that no person can be regenerated or saved without it, or that all that are baptized are undoubtedly regenerated.

VI. The efficacy of baptism is not tied to that moment of time wherein it is administered; yet, notwithstanding, by the right use of this ordinancy the grace promised is not only offered, but really exhibited and conferred by the Holy Ghost, to such (whether of age or infants) as that grace belongeth unto, according to the counsel of God's own will, in his appointed time.

VII. The sacrament of Baptism is but once to be administered to any person.

CHAPTER XXIX. Of the Lord's Supper.

I. Our Lord Jesus, in the night wherein he was betrayed, instituted the sacrament of his body and blood, called the Lord's Supper, to be observed in his Church unto the end of the world; for the perpetual remembrance of the sacrifice of himself in his death, the sealing all benefits thereof unto true believers, their spiritual nourishment and growth in him, their further engagement in and to all duties which they owe unto him; and to be a bond and pledge of their communion with him, and with each other, as members of his mystical body.

II. In this sacrament Christ is not offered up to his Father, nor any real sacrifice made at all for remission of sins of the quick or dead, but a commemoration of that one offering up of himself, by himself, upon the cross, once for all, and a spiritual oblation of all possible praise unto God for the same; so that the Popish sacrifice of the mass, as they call it, is most abominably injurious to Christ's one only sacrifice, the alone propitiation for all the sins of the elect.

III. The Lord Jesus hath, in this ordinance, appointed his ministers to declare his word of institution to the people, to pray, and bless the elements of bread and wine, and thereby to set them apart from a common to an holy use; and to take and break the bread, to take the cup, and (they communicating also themselves) to give both to the communicants; but to none who are not then present in the congregation.

IV. Private masses, or receiving this sacrament by a priest, or any other, alone; as likewise the denial of the cup to the people; worshipping the elements, the lifting them up, or carrying them about for adoration, and the reserving them for any pretended religious use, are all contrary to the nature of this sacrament, and to the institution of Christ.

V. The outward elements in this sacrament, duly set apart to the uses ordained by Christ, have such relation to him crucified, as that truly, yet sacramentally only, they are sometimes called by the name of the thigns they represent, to wit, the body and blood of Christ; albeit, in substance and nature, they still remain truly, and only, bread and wine, as they were before.

VI. That doctrine which maintains a change of the substance of bread and wine, into the substance of Christ's body and blood (commonly called transubstantiation) by consecration of a priest, or by any other way, is repugnant, not to Scripture alone, but even to common-sense and reason; overthroweth the nature of the sacrament; and hath been, and is, the cause of manifold superstitions, yea, of gross idolatries.

VII. Worthy receivers, outwardly partaking of the visible elements in this sacrament, do then also inwardly by faith, really and indeed, yet not carnally and corporally, but spiritually, receive and feed upon Christ crucified, and all benefits of his death: the body and blood of Christ being then not corporally or carnally in, with, or under the bread and wine; yet as really, but spiritually, present to the faith of believers in that ordinance, as the elements themselves are to their outward senses.

VIII. Although ignorant and wicked men receive the outward elements in this sacrament, yet they receive not the thing signified thereby; but by their unworthy coming thereunto are guilty of the body and blood of the Lord, to their own damnation. Wherefore all ignorant and ungodly persons, as they are unfit to enjoy communion with him, so are they unworthy of the Lord's table, and can not, without great sin against Christ, while they remain such, partake of these holy mysteries, or be admitted thereunto.

CHAPTER XXX. Of Church Censures.

I. The Lord Jesus, as king and head of his Church, hath therein appointed a government in the hand of Church officers, distinct from the civil magistrate.

II. To these officers the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven are committed, by virtue whereof they have power respectively to retain and remit sins, to shut that kingdom against the impenitent, both by the word and censures; and to open it unto penitent sinners, by the ministry of the gospel, and by absolution from censures, as occasion shall require.

III. Church censures are necessary for the reclaiming and gaining of offending brethren; for deterring of others from like offenses; for purging out of that leaven which might infect the whole lump; for vindicating the honor of Christ, and the holy profession of the gospel; and for preventing the wrath of God, which might justly fall upon the Church, if they should suffer his covenant, and the seals thereof, to be profaned by notorious and obstinate offenders.

IV. For the better attaining of these ends, the officers of the Church are to proceed by admonition, suspension from the sacrament of the Lord's Supper for a season, and by excommunication from the Church, according to the nature of the crime, and demerit of the person.

CHAPTER XXXI. Of Synods and Councils.

I. For the better government and further edification of the Church, there ought to be such assemblies as are commonly called synods or councils.

II. As magistrates may lawfully call a synod of ministers and other fit persons to consult and advise with about matters of religion; so, if magistrates be open enemies of the Church, the ministers of Christ, of themselves, by virtue of their office, or they, with other fit persons, upon delegation from their churches, may meet together in such assemblies.

III. It belongeth to synods and councils, ministerially, to determine controversies of faith, and cases of conscience; to set down rules and directions for the better ordering of the public worship of God, and government of his Church; to receive complaints in cases of maladministration, and authoritatively to determine the same: which decrees and determinations, if consonant to the Word of God, are to be received with reverence and submission, not only for their agreement with the Word, but also for the power whereby they are made, as being an ordinance of God, appointed thereunto in his Word.

[6.175] IV. All synods or councils since the apostles' times, whether general or particular, may err, and many have erred; therefore they are not to be made the rule of faith or practice, but to be used as a help in both.

[6.176] V. Synods and councils are to handle or conclude nothing but that which is ecclesiastical: and are not to intermeddle with civil affairs which concern the commonwealth, unless by way of humble petition in cases extraordinary; or by way of advice for satisfaction of conscience, if they be thereunto required by the civil magistrate.

CHAPTER XXXII. Of the State of Man After Death, and and of the Resurrection of the Dead.

I. The bodies of men, after death, return to dust, and see corruption; but their souls (which neither die nor sleep), having an immortal subsistence, immediately return to God who gave them. The souls of the righteous, being then made perfect in holiness, are received into the highest heavens, where they behold the face of God in light and glory, waiting for the full redemption of their bodies; and the souls of the wicked are cast into hell, where they remain in torments and utter darkness, reserved to the judgment of the great day. Besides these two places for souls separated from their bodies, the Scripture acknowledgeth none.

II. At the last day, such as are found alive shall not die, but be changed: and all the dead shall be raised up with the self-same bodies, and none other, although with different qualities, which shall be united again to their souls forever.

III. The bodies of the unjust shall, by the power of Christ, be raised to dishonor; the bodies of the just, by his Spirit, unto honor, and be made conformable to his own glorious body.

CHAPTER XXXIII. Of the Last Judgment.

I. God hath appointed a day, wherein he will judge the world in righteousness by Jesus Christ, to whom all power and judgment is given of the Father. In which day, not only the apostate angels shall be judged; but likewise all persons, that have lived upon earth, shall appear before the tribunal of Christ, to give an account of their thoughts, words, and deeds; and to receive according to what they have done in the body, whether good or evil.

II. The end of God's appointing this day, is for the manifestation of the glory of his mercy in the eternal salvation of the elect; and of his justice in the damnation of the reprobate, who are wicked and disobedient. For then shall the righteous go into everlasting life, and receive that fullness of joy and refreshing which shall come from the presence of the Lord: but the wicked, who know not God, and obey not the gospel of Jesus Christ, shall be cast into eternal torments, and punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power.

III. As Christ would have us to be certainly persuaded that there shall be a day of judgment, both to deter all men from sin, and for the greater consolation of the godly in their adversity: so will he have that day unknown to men, that they may shake off all carnal security, and be always watchful, because they know not at what hour the Lord will come; and may be ever prepared to say, Come, Lord Jesus, come quickly. Amen.

                                        Charles Herle, Prolocuter.

                                        Cornelius Burges, Assessor.

                                        Herbert Palmer, Assessor.

                                        Henry Robroughe, Scriba.

                                        Adoniram Byfield, Scriba.



Adopted at the Associations of Aberystwyth and Bala in the year 1823. (References to the text of Scripture, on which the entire structure of doctrine rests, are taken from the Authorised version of the Bible)


1. Of the being of God.

There is one God and only one true and living God. The light of nature in man proves the being of God. All nations acknowledge a God or god's. Natural conscience, accusing or else excusing, proves the being of God, and Man's responsibility to Him for his actions (a). The creation proves the being of God, as an effect proves it has a cause. The creation could not have come into being of itself : it must have had cause (b). The being of man himself proves the being of God : forasmuch as one man is the offspring of another man, the first man must have existed; consequently, he must have had a Creator.

The order, beauty, adaption, harmony, and consistence of the creation proves that a wise God gave it being, and upholds and governs all things (c). All creatures answer purposes which they could not themselves have ordained or designed; it is evident, therefore, that one great Governor rules over all (d). The terrible retributions that have befallen some of God's enemies in this world, and the terrors that have dismayed their consciences at death, after a life spent in denying God, prove his existence (e).

2. Of the Scriptures.

The Holy Scriptures - that is, the written word of God, the book commonly called The Bible - consists of all the books of the Old and New Testaments.  

The books of the Old Testament are Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1 Samuel, 2 Samuel, 1 Kings, 2 Kings, 1 Chronicles, 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi.

The books of the New Testament are the gospels according to Matthew , Mark, Luke and John, The Acts, Paul's Epistles : to the Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Epistle to the Hebrews, Epistle of James, First and Second Epistles of Peter, First Second and Third Epistles of John, Epistle of Jude, Revelation of John.  

All the Scriptures - that is to say, the books of the Old and New Testaments - are the word of God. From him they came; they were spoken by holy men of God; they contain a full, sufficient, and perfect revelation of the mind and will of God, concerning all things that are necessary to be know for our salvation (a); and they are the only infallible rule of faith and obedience. The truths which they contain respecting God and the perfections of his nature are so exceedingly broad and deep, that no one could have revealed them, except him who has a perfect knowledge of himself (b); the godliness and self denial of the writers, the purity and holiness of all the truths contained in the Scriptures, the consistency of all the parts, though written by various persons and in various ages of the world (c), the continued preservation of the Scriptures, though the strongest authorities on earth have assailed and sought to destroy them, the fact that it is their main design to manifest God's greatness and glory (d), their authority and influence over the hearts and lives of men, and the superiority of those nations which have had the Scriptures, in every age of the world, over other nations, in morals, knowledge, and all else that adorns humanity, - all these things prove beyond a doubt that the infinite God is their author (e).  

Besides, we have no grounds for thinking that either men or angels are the authors of the Holy Scriptures; we cannot suppose that bad men, in early times, were the authors of the Scriptures, without supposing also that evil had changed its former nature; and it is very certain that evil spirits never fashioned these weapons which are destined to subvert their kingdom in the hearts of men; and it would not be consistent with the holiness of the elect angels, nor with the holiness of godly men, to utter a lie in the name of The Lord of Hosts; it is, therefore, abundantly evident that the Scriptures come from God, and from no other source (f).  

3. Of the Attributes of God.

Though the light of nature in man, and the works of creation etc., clearly prove the being of God, and though reason proves that there is but one true God (a), still we cannot know his attributes without a special revelation from himself (b). No one knows God perfectly except himself (c). In the Holy Scriptures we have God's witness concerning himself; and as he has witnessed in his word, so ought we to think and believe concerning him. The true God is a pure, invisible, self-subsisting Spirit (d); without body, parts, or passions; eternal, without beginning, change, or end; infinite, and incomprehensible; absolute, omnipresent, omniscient, and almighty; perfect in holiness, righteousness, wisdom, and goodness; long-suffering, gracious, and merciful; forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin; but terrible in his wrath; for he will not at all acquit the wicked, but will visit sin with righteous judgement (e).  

By the attributes of God we are to understand his properties. All his attributes are infinite; and all perfections belong to God, and are his properties (f).

4. Of the Persons of the Trinity.

Though there is but one God, and though there cannot be more than one true God, still it is the clear testimony of Holy Scripture that there are in the Godhead THREE Persons, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost; that these three are co-eternal and co-equal, not one before or after another, not greater or less than another, but one God (a).

Everyone of these persons is true God, and the one person is not the other person; nevertheless, there is only one God. The Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost are not names, offices, or attributes, but divine Persons (b); the Father an eternal Person, the Son an eternal Person, the Holy Ghost an eternal Person; but the three Persons one eternal God. And while distinct offices and operations belong to one Person more than to another in the plan of salvation, still the three Persons have the same divine attributes; the three divine Persons have the same eternity, omniscience, omnipresence, omnipotence etc. (c); the three have the same holiness, goodness, love, etc.; the objects of the love of the three Persons are the same (d); and the eternal decree is the decree of the Trinity. And though we cannot comprehend the doctrine of the Trinity, we ought to believe it (e), because God so testifies concerning himself. God knows himself perfectly, and is the God of truth; consequently, we ought steadfastly to believe his testimony concerning himself

 5. Of God's Decree.

God, from eternity, after the council of his own will, and for the manifestation and exaltation of his glorious attributes, decreed all that he would do in time and to eternity, in creation, in the government of his creatures, and in the salvation of sinners of the human race; yet so that he is not the author of sin nor constrains the will of his creature in its actions (a). The decree of God depends not in the least upon the creature nor upon the foreknowledge of God himself; on the contrary, God knows that certain things will be, because he has decreed that they should be (b). God's decree is infinitely wise (c), and perfectly just (d); eternal (e), free (f), comprehensive (g), secret (h), gracious (I), holy (j), good (k), unchangeable (l), and effectual (m).

6. Of the Creation.

In the beginning God (Father, Son and Holy Ghost) created the heaven and the earth, the sea and all that therein is, for himself : "For his pleasure they are and were created." "He hath done whatsoever he pleased." "The things which are seen were not made of things which do appear;" but he "spake the word, and so it was; he commanded, and it stood fast;" and all things were made in six days, and everything was very good (a).

7. Of God's Providence in the Preservation and Government of the World.

God, in his wise, holy, and righteous providence, upholds and governs all creatures and their actions (a). His providence extends over all places, all events, all changes, and all times (b). His providence, in its operation, is full of eyes to behold, and powerful to perform, and makes all things work together for good to them that love God (c). It overrules the sinful actions of men; nevertheless, it neither causes nor occasions the sinfulness of any of them (d).

8. Of Man in his original state of Innocence.

The Lord God formed the first man, Adam, as to his body, of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul, spiritual, rational, and immortal (a). He and in him all his offspring were made upright, in the image and after the likeness of God, endowed with knowledge, holiness, and righteousness. The law of God was implanted as an instinct in his heart (b), and he was both endowed with power, and placed in advantageous circumstances, to keep it; yet capable of changing and falling (c). He stood only so long as he kept the commandment. He was perfectly happy, at peace with God, and enjoying his fellowship, and had dominion over all creatures on earth (d).

9. Of the Covenant of Works.

It pleased God to condescend to enter into covenant with the first man, Adam, adapted to his state of innocence, and consisting of a command, a threat, and a promise. The special command, which was the pledge of his obedience, was not to eat the fruit of the forbidden tree; the threat was that, if he ate thereof, he should die. The nature of the command and the threat leads us to infer that this covenant contained a promise also of life and happiness, if man obeyed the command, in contradistinction to the death threatened as the penalty of disobedience (a). The law of our nature was all contained in this covenant, so that it was impossible to transgress the special command of the covenant without transgressing, at the same time, the entire law of our nature (b). Adam stood, in this covenant, not only as a natural root of all his offspring, but also as their covenant head and representative; so that their happiness or misery, as well as his own, depended upon his obedience or disobedience (c).

10. Of the Fall of Man and Original Sin.

Though man, when God made the covenant of works with him, had power to obey and fulfill the conditions of the covenant, yet he disobeyed God and broke the covenant (a). The serpent deceived Eve, and Adam hearkened unto the voice of his wife and wilfully transgressed the commandment of his Creator by eating of the forbidden fruit; and by this means he broke God's covenant (b), forfeited his right to the promised life, became subject to the threatened death (c), lost his original uprightness and fellowship with God, and became totally corrupt in soul and body (d). As he was the root and representative of mankind, his first sin is imputed to them, and his corruption flows into all his seed, who spring from him by natural generation (e). In consequence of this natural corruption, mankind are become incapable of goodness, yea, opposed to all goodness and prone to all evil; and from this depraved nature springs all actual sin (f). Original sin and all actual sins, in soul or body, are transgressions of God's holy law, bring the sinner under a curse, and expose him to the wrath of God, and to spiritual, temporal, and eternal misery (g).

11. Of the State of Man by Nature.

All mankind are by nature in a guilty, sinful, and miserable state (a). By their relation to the first Adam they are under the law, as it is sanctioned in the covenant of works : and through his first transgression, all of them, forasmuch as they are in him, have been brought under the curse of the law (b), which declares everyone cursed that continues not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them. And by nature all are dead in trespasses and sins, enemies in their mind by wicked works, every imagination of the thoughts of their hearts being only evil continually, without any desire to know the Lord or to obey him, and justly deserving of eternal death (c).

12. On the Election of Grace.

God from eternity elected and appointed Christ to be the covenant head, mediator, and surety of his church, to redeem and save it (a). God elected also in Christ a great multitude, which no man can number, out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation, to holiness and eternal life (b) : and appointed all the means necessary to accomplish this end (c). This election is eternal (d), righteous (e), sovereign (f), unconditional (g), particular or personal (h), and unchangeable (I). The election of grace wrongs no one : though God in righteousness left some persons unpredestinated, yet, he did them no injustice; they are in the same condition in which they would have been, if there had been no election; and if there had been no election of grace, no flesh would have been saved (j).

13. Of the Eternal Covenant of Grace.

God from eternity made a gracious covenant or plan, ordered in all things and sure, for the salvation of men (a). The parties to this covenant are the blessed Persons of the Trinity - the Father, Son, and the Holy Ghost (b). The Father represents the honour and the glory of God's attributes and government, contemned and dishonoured by man (c); the Son, as their covenant Head and mighty Surety, represents and stands in the stead of all those of the human race who are elected and believe in him unto salvation (d); the Holy Ghost engages to work in the elect as the Spirit of Christ, as Sanctifier and Comforter (e). The conditions of this covenant on the part of Christ, the Surety of his people, were that he should perform on their behalf all that was owing from them to God and his law (f). Exceeding great and precious promises have been given by the Father in the covenant to Christ and his seed; the entire sum of all the promises which were given to the Surety, and will be fulfilled to his covenant seed, is eternal life (g).

God in his own time reveals this covenant through the gospel to all his people, and, by bringing them to approve and embrace it, brings them into the bond of the covenant, and into actual possession in their own persons of its grace, gifts, and privileges (h). The covenant of grace was revealed by degrees, and under various dispensations; but the gospel dispensation is the last and most glorious (I). This covenant is free, sure, holy, advantageous, and eternal (j).

14. Of the Person of the Father and the Work Ascribed to Him in the Plan of Salvation.

The Father is called a Person (a). He is called Father, to set forth his relation to Christ, his only-begotten Son, who is in his bosom (b); and the union between the Father and the Son is such that he that denies the Son, denies the Father also. The Father is in the Son, and the Son is in the Father (c). As Persons they are distinct, but Father, Son, and Holy Ghost are one essence (d). "No man knoweth the Son, but the Father : and no man knoweth the Father, save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son will reveal him" (e). To the Father is ascribed, in the plan of salvation, the election of Christ to be the Saviour of sinners (f), the preparation of his human nature (g), his ordination to be a propitiation (h), the laying on him the iniquity of his people, the bruising him for their sins (I), his resurrection from the dead, to declare that he was satisfied in his death (j), the election of sinners in Christ (k), the drawing them unto him (l), and the glorification of Christ and, in him, his people in the end (m).

15. Of the Person of Christ, The Mediator.

In the fullness of time, God's own Son, eternally begotten, an infinite Person in the Godhead, equal with the Father, the express image of his Person, true God, took upon him human nature, in the Virgin's womb, - true, entire humanity, but holy and free from its defilement. A body was prepared for him by the Father, and formed by the Holy Ghost, of the substance of the Virgin, free from all taint of impurity; and this body the Son assumed into union with his own Person (a). Thus a divine Person and human nature have been indivisibly united in the one Mediator, without conversion or confusion of the Divine and human natures. The infinite Person, Christ Jesus, is true God and true man; yet, one Mediator, between God and men, EMMANUEL (b). It was necessary that the Mediator should be God-man, because it was necessary that the Surety should be made under the law in our stead, obey it perfectly, suffer its curse, and die for those whom he represented, which he could not have done if he had not been man; it was also necessary that his obedience, sufferings, and death should be infinitely efficacious and precious, which they could not have been if he had not been God (c). But, inasmuch as he was God-man, he magnified the law, satisfied justice, honoured all the attributes and the government of God, and made reconciliation by his perfect obedience and sacrifice (d). In the mediation of Christ both natures performed each its own proper work; nevertheless, in virtue of the union between them, the acts of the one or the other are ascribed to the Person (e). The union of both natures remains, and will remain for ever, in the person of Christ. He will be forever God-man (f).

16. Of the Offices of the Mediator.

Jesus Christ is the only Mediator between God and men. He is the Mediator of the new covenant (or Testament), a Saviour, Deliverer. Shepherd; ordained in covenant according to the good pleasure of God (a). All fulness and glorious fitness are found in him, in virtue of the greatness of his Person, his eternal appointment, and his anointing with the graces and gifts of the Holy Ghost, without measure (b). He fulfills this extensive office as Prophet, by declaring God and his whole council and purpose in Holy Scripture, through the instruments which he used; in his personal ministry in the days of his flesh (c); and in the abiding work of his Spirit, through the instruments and means which he appointed for savingly enlightening his whole church, concerning those things which are necessary to be known in order to salvation (d).

As Priest, in his state of humiliation, in the stead of his people, and under the imputation of their sins, he offered up, by his active and passive obedience, a Sacrifice, Offering, and Atonement, perfect and without spot to God, for his whole church (e). In his state of exaltation, he intercedes in heaven for all the transgressors that were given him, whom he purchased with his precious blood. He will continue to intercede until he sees of the travail of his soul and is satisfied (f).

As King, he is the head over all things to his church; rules over all things for its good, its continuance, and increase; gathers together and bring sinners into subjection to himself; reigns graciously in their souls; protects, defends, and saves to the uttermost all his redeemed; and rewards them at the end of their course (g).

17. Of the Humiliation and Exaltation of Christ.

Christ, according to the eternal decree and covenant, had been appointed Mediator, and administered the office, from the time when the promise of the seed of the woman was given to the time of his incarnation; and was required to administer and fulfill his mediatorial offices in two states - that is, his state of humiliation and his state of exaltation (a).

In his state of humiliation, he who was true God came into the world, assumed human nature, became true man and partaker of flesh and blood; he who was in the form of God took upon him the form of a servant; he who knew no sin was made sin for sinners (b). He assumed humanity in a poor virgins womb; when he was born, he was laid in a manger; his enemies sought to destroy him; he was brought up in poverty; he endured slander, false accusations, and reproach (c); he suffered the greatest shame and pain in soul and body, at the hands of men and devils; he was smitten by God as by a righteous Judge. He became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross (d); in his humiliation, sufferings, and death, he magnified the law, satisfied justice, glorified all the attributes of God, conquered the devil, destroyed death, suffered the utmost penalty of sin, gave himself an offering and a sacrifice, sufficient and without spot, so that he put away sin by the sacrifice of himself; he bought his church, wrought for it an everlasting righteousness, and opened a fountain for its thorough cleansing (e).

Christ fulfilled all his mediatorial offices in his state of humiliation : he taught the multitudes, but especially his disciples (f); he conquered men and evil spirits, controlled the elements, subdued diseases, and overcame death itself; he ruled and protected his people (g); he sacrificed himself, and thereby abolished all sacrifices (h); he interceded for transgressors and blessed his people (I).

When the Mediator had wholly finished the work which he had been given to do in his state of humiliation, God highly exalted him above all (j). As God he could not be exalted; for as God he was above all when he was in the form of a servant and in the depth of his humiliation (k). But as Mediator he was very highly exalted in his glorious resurrection, triumphant ascension, joyous session on the right hand of the Father, and appointment to be the Judge of all (l).

Christ is Mediator in his state of exaltation : he is the only way to the Father, and through him only are saving blessings brought to men (m). He stills fulfills all his mediatorial offices on the right hand of the Father; as Priest, he appears before God and intercedes for transgressors; as Prophet, he sends his Spirit and endows men with gifts sufficient for teaching his people; as King, he rules and protects them, and governs all things for their good (n).

18. Of Redemption.

As the law was magnified, justice satisfied, the divine government honoured, and all God's attributes were glorified, in the life and death of Christ, so also the church (a) was wholly redeemed from the earth, from among men, from under the curse, from all iniquity - redeemed to God with a price, by payment of a ransom, even the precious blood of Christ. The original cause of this redemption is the infinite love and grace of the Trinity (b). In an eternal decree and council between the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, for the redemption of sinners (c), the Son was chosen to be the Redeemer (d), and it was ordained that he should assume human nature, in order to become our kinsman, with the right to redeem his brethren (e). It was ordained that his Person should stand in the stead of those persons (and those only) who had been given him to redeem (f). In the fulness of time he was made of a woman (g), made under the law, that, by the imputation of their sins to him, he might redeem those who were given to him : "The Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all - and he bare the sins of many" (h). "He hath made (by imputation) him to be sin for us, who knew no sin (by corruption of nature, thought, or deed)"

(I). "I lay down," said Christ, "my life for the sheep" (j). He suffered in his own Person the penalty due for the sins which were imputed to him. "Christ hath once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us (for whom he suffered) to God." He thus redeemed a countless multitude, by making a full atonement for all their sins (k). Men were redeemed, but all things - that is, grace and glory - are obtained for them through the Redeemer, and through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus.

Thus the redemption ensures their calling, justification, sanctification, perseverance, adoption, and glorification (l). Though it is improper to say that the Holy Ghost was purchased for his people, yet it is in virtue of the redemption purchased and the atonement made by Christ for their sins, that the Holy Ghost and every good gift pertaining to their salvation are bestowed upon them; the redemption removed all obstacles out of the way, and established communion between heaven and earth. Thus through that ransom, that is to say, the blood of Christ, they are saved from sin and all its consequences, and brought into everlasting glory (m).

Addendum ((ADDED IN 1874) We also recognize in addition to the form referred to in article 18 : None will perish because of insufficiency in the atonement, but all because they will not come unto Christ to be saved; and these will have no excuse to make for their neglect of Christ.)

19. Of the Intercession of Christ.

Christ, in the nature of his people, ever makes intercession for them before the Father (a). When on earth Christ furnished us with a beautiful pattern of his intercession in heaven (b). The intercession of Christ on earth was adapted to his state of humiliation; and, in like manner, his intercession in heaven befits the glory of his exaltation to the right hand of the Father (c). Christ intercedes before his Father and his people's Father (d); the Person of the Advocate is infinitely glorious, and beloved and accepted by the Father (e); his intercession is perfectly righteous, because it is the intercession of Jesus Christ the righteous, and because he is the Propitiation (f); and he intercedes for those whom the Father himself loves (g). His intercession is, therefore, effectual and all-prevailing. He intercedes not only for his church generally, but also for every one of his people individually, in all their circumstances and temptations, for the maintenance and increase of all their graces, that they faint not (h). It is through the virtue and efficacy of his intercession they are kept in the peace and favour of God, and their service is acceptable before God (I). 

20. Of the Person and Work of the Holy Ghost.

The Holy Ghost is true God and a true and distinct Person in the Godhead, equal in power and glory with the Father and the Son (a); for he bears a divine name (b), and has divine attributes (c); divine worship is paid him (d); and divine acts have been and are being done by him, which none but God could have done or can do (e). Though it is the Godhead of the three Persons that works all things, yet distinctive operations are ascribed to each Person : creation and election to the Father, redemption to the Son, sanctifying and sealing to the Holy Ghost (f). To the Holy Ghost is also ascribed the forming of Christ's human nature holy in the Virgin's womb (g), and the endowing of it with every grace and gift without measure (h). The writers of Scripture spoke as they were moved by the Holy Ghost (I). He calls and endows men for, and sends them into the work of ministry, and gives them success (j). He convinces (k) and regenerates sinners (l), guides (m) and comforts (n) the children of God, and will raise them up at the last day (o).

The work of the Holy Ghost in those who will be saved to eternal life is a gracious (p), holy (q), effectual (r), and abiding (s) work, according to the eternal covenant (t), the effect of eternal love (u), and the fruit of the meritorious redemption (v).

21. Of the Necessity for the Work of the Holy Spirit to Apply the Plan of Salvation.

To save sinners, it is as necessary to apply as it was to provide the plan of salvation. To prepare and provide a plan of salvation without applying it would have been a vain thing. It must be applied, as well as provided, by an infinite Person. Men will not accept or make use of it, though it be prepared (a); and God, foreseeing this from eternity, in decreeing, in his eternal love, the salvation of sinners, not only appointed his Son to provide a full salvation for them, but also, in the same eternal plan, appointed the Holy Ghost to apply it; that none of the objects of his love should perish for want of applying any more than for want of preparing and providing it (b). The Spirit is an infinite Person, and loves the objects of the divine mercy as much as the Father and the Son do, and is equally faithful to fulfil the work given him to do in the eternal covenant (c).

22. Of the Call of the Gospel.

The call of the gospel contains a general proclamation of glad tidings to lost sinners, through Jesus Christ (a), and sets before them strong encouragements to return unto him for their eternal salvation (b). Where this call is effectual, the power of God works through it in a gracious (c), irresistible (d), and saving (e) manner, to quicken those who were dead in sin (f), to cast down imaginations in the minds of men (g), to deliver them from the power of darkness and translate them into the kingdom of his dear Son (h), to make them willing in the day of his power (I), and guide them into all truth (j). Moreover all those, to whom the gospel is the power of God to bring them to him in the day of grace, will be brought at last to eternal glory, through our Lord Jesus Christ (k).

23. Of Union with Christ.

Those who are effectually called are brought into a mystical union with Christ (a). Though they were elected in Christ from eternity, and represented by him in the eternal covenant (b), nevertheless they are by nature the children of wrath, even as others, enemies of God, and far from Christ (c), until the Holy Ghost is sent to convince them of sin, show them their state of misery, reveal Christ to them, draw them to him, and create them in him; then will they be members of his mystical body, and will be in him as the branches are in the vine (d); then Christ and his salvation become theirs; the Holy Ghost dwells in them; and they receive every grace from the fulness of Christ (e). This union is intimate and loving; quickening and fruitful; strong and eternal : because the Head lives, the members shall live also (f). They are no more in the first Adam, as their covenant-head, nor under that covenant or its curse; but they are in Christ, the head of the covenant of grace, and have a right to all the blessings of the covenant (g).

24. Of Justification.

Justification is an act of God's free grace, wherein he accounts and declares a man righteous by imputing to him the righteousness of Christ, which the sinner receives by faith (a). In the justification of sinners, God manifests his righteousness and the honor of his law as well as his grace and mercy; inasmuch as he justifies them "through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation, that he might be just, and the justifier of him which believeth in Jesus" (b). The righteousness of Christ, whereby sinners are justified, is called "the righteousness which is of God by faith" (c). It is not befitting to ascribe to faith the merit that belongs only to the righteousness of Christ : that would be to confound the sun with the window that transmits the light. Justification contains in itself pardon of all the sinner's transgressions, that he perish not because of them (d); the acceptance of his person in the sight of God (e), and the giving him a lawful claim to the enjoyment of eternal happiness. It is called "justification of life (f)", and the transgressor is thereby made the "heir of eternal life" (g).

25. Of Adoption.

Those whom God justifies, he adopts through Jesus Christ to himself (a), receives them as his children, and gives them the liberty and privileges of children. He calls them by his name, sends forth the spirit of adoption into their hearts, and gives them liberty to come boldly unto the throne of grace, and strength to cry, Abba, Father (b). He pities them, provides for them, teaches them, protects them, and, when necessary, chastises them as their Father (c); but he will not cast them out : he seals them unto the day of redemption. They are children, and also heirs (d).

26. Of Regeneration.

Regeneration consists in a gracious and supernatural change, wrought by the Spirit of God in all those who are saved to eternal life, by making them partakers of the divine nature (a), which is the principle of a holy life, effectually working in the whole man, and for that reason called "the new man" (b). The holy nature received in regeneration acts in all those who are made partakers of it in direct opposition to every form of corruption, and after God who created it (c). This change produces in the whole man a lively impress of God's holiness, as a child bears the image of his father (d). God alone is the author of this change. It is generally wrought by means of the word, and is set forth in Scripture under several names; such as quickening, forming Christ in the heart, partaking of the divine nature, and circumcising the heart (e). This change is wrought in order that men may glorify God by bringing forth the fruits of righteousness, and purifying the soul, so as to be meet to enjoy fellowship with God for ever (f).

27. Of Sanctification.

All those who are united to Christ and justified through his righteousness are also sanctified. They receive virtue from his death, and from his resurrection, that they may be mortified to sin, and quickened to righteousness (a). Their sanctification is personal and real, not imputative (b). The word and the Spirit of God dwell in them (c); the dominion of the whole body of sin has been destroyed; their several lusts are mortified and weakened from day to day (d); and every grace is strengthened for every holy exercise; for "without holiness no man shall see the Lord" (e). Sanctification is carried on throughout the whole man, yet is imperfect in this life, by reason of the corruption that also remains in every part (f). Hence arises the continual warfare in the saints between the flesh and the spirit (g). Though the warfare continues and corruption is exceeding strong, and the saints are oftentimes sorely wounded, yet through the intercession of Christ on their behalf, and the renewal of strength from the Spirit of grace, the regenerate nature is strengthened until it overcomes (h). They grow in grace, perfecting holiness in the fear of God; the good work begun in them will be finished (I). Then shall they be without spot or wrinkle, or any such thing (j).

28. Of Saving Faith and it's Fruits.

Saving faith is a gracious instinct or principle, wrought in the heart by the Spirit of God (a); whereby the soul is brought to believe the testimony of God in his Word concerning all that he has spoken (b); to believe the commandments so as to obey, the threatenings so as to tremble, the promises so as to accept and embrace them (c), and especially to believe that we are utterly sinful, lost, and undone, without the Lord Jesus, and that through his propitiation and righteousness alone we are saved (d); inasmuch as it is by this faith we receive and rest upon Christ alone for our salvation (e). This is the faith of God's elect; it is this faith that God gives, that saves, justifies, works by love, purifies the heart, and overcomes the world. This faith is unfeigned, abides, looks unto the Lord, flees for refuge to lay hold upon the hope set before it, takes hold of the Lord's strength, trusts him, puts on the Lord Jesus, feeds upon him, and lives to him (f). This faith differs in degree in different Christians, and in the same Christian at different times (g). But the least degree of it differs in kind from the faith of hypocrites, and accompanies salvation (h). This faith is never without good works, which spring from it as its necessary and natural fruits (I).

29. Of Repentance Unto Life.

God, in calling by his grace those who have arrived at years of discretion, gives them repentance unto life; that is to say, a change is wrought in their thoughts, belief, and lives; and deep, unfeigned sorrow produced, because they have sinned against him (a). And inasmuch as corruption remains in the best of men on earth, and that they through the deceitfulness of their sins within and the temptations of the devil, offend in many things, God has provided, in the covenant of grace, that, when believers offend, they shall be renewed again through repentance (b).

Through the evangelical grace of repentance the Holy Spirit makes the believer sensible of the great evil of sin, and through faith in Christ humbles and abhors himself because of it, and in godly sorrow hates it, and earnestly prays for pardon of his past sins, and to be strengthened through grace against sin; and he fully resolves, with the help of the Spirit, to walk before God unto all pleasing in all things (c).

Repentance must needs continue during the whole life of the Christian, because the body of death continues. It is his duty to repent, not only of sin in general, but also of all his particular sins (d).

Such is the provision in the covenant for the safety of believers, that, as there is no sin so small but deserves condemnation, there is no sin so great that it can bring condemnation upon him who truly repents (e). The preaching of repentance is, therefore, at all times necessary (f).

30. Of the Moral Law.

Though Christ redeemed all his people from the curse of the law, as it was sanctioned in the covenant of works (a), yet the moral law, the substance of which was written in the heart of man at his creation (b), which was proclaimed by God from Mount Sinai in ten commandments, to declare God's authority over men and cause the offence to abound, to show the necessity for a mediator and to be a schoolmaster to bring men to Christ (c); which was also proclaimed by Christ in the gospel in two great commandments, love to God and love to our neighbour, the latter springing from and being evidence of the former (d) - this law ever continues to be the rule of man's obedience to his Creator, in no degree changed under any dispensation (e). This perfect law is spiritual, righteous, holy, and good, and contains in itself all that the Lord requires of men; no change being possible in one of its commandments, while God is Creator and man a creature (f). To magnify this law Christ was manifested in the flesh and fulfilled the work of redemption (g); and this is the law that the Holy Ghost writes in the hearts of the redeemed, when they are restored to the image of God (h).

31. Of Good Works.

Good works are such works only as are commanded by God and are according to his will (a) : such as spring from a good and upright principle, and are done in faith and directed to a right end, that is, the glory of God : for as the tree must be good before it can bring forth good fruit, so a sinner must be reconciled to God, united to Christ, and made a partaker of his Spirit, before he can do one good work (b). The best works of the best men are imperfect, and therefore neither merit anything from God nor obtain salvation for men (c). Notwithstanding, good works are very necessary to be done at all times and to the utmost of our power, inasmuch as they have been ordained and commanded by God, and are the adornment and beauty of our profession, an example to others, and a means to put to silence the ignorance of foolish men (d).

32. Of Peace of Conscience.

Believers in this world enjoy peace of conscience (a). Though their consciences have been truly awakened to bear witness for God, with the truth, against every sin in their hearts and lives, and declare the great evil of sin, the miserable state of the sinner, who deserves the wrath of God (b), yet, because the sinner receives the atonement and rests by faith on the sacrifice and propitiation of Christ, his conscience is satisfied in what has satisfied God, enjoys true peace through the blood of the cross, and testifies that we have peace with God (c). An appeased conscience does not permit the believer to live in sin, but is a tender, awakened, and faithful conscience, to bear witness against sin of every kind - against the enticements of the devil and the corruption of the heart (d).

Those who profess to have peace of conscience, and yet live in sin, deceive themselves (e). Though peace of conscience is not founded on the man's experience, the purity of his motives, or the strictness of his life, pure motives and a strict walk in the ways of God are very helpful to keep and enjoy peace of conscience (f). Conscience sometimes accuses the believer of sin and testifies that he deserves the frown and chastisement of God, though it does not pronounce sentence of condemnation upon him (g). An appeased conscience is precious in prayer, in trouble, and in death (h).

33. Of the Assurance of Hope.

The assurance of hope follows upon true peace of conscience and a strict walk with God by faith. Hypocrites may deceive themselves with false hope and a carnal presumption of being in the favour of God and in a state of salvation, but their hope shall perish (a). But all that believe in Christ, and love him in sincerity, and endeavour to walk before him in all good conscience, may, in this life, be certainly assured that they are in a state of grace, and may rejoice in the hope of the glory of God; and their hope shall never be put to shame (b). This is not a doubtful conjecture, grounded on a false and feeble hope : it is "the full assurance of faith," resting on the blood and righteousness of Christ, as it is revealed in the gospel; an inward evidence of saving grace in the soul; and the witness of the Spirit to their adoption. The effect of this assurance is to make their hearts more humble and holy (c). A true believer may have to wait long and strive with many difficulties before he enjoys this assurance (d); but being enabled by the Spirit rightly to use the means of grace and divine ordinances, and being taught to know the things which are "freely given him of God," he can attain it without a miraculous revelation of any kind (e); and it is the duty of every Christian to give all diligence to make his calling and election sure, that he may largely experience the love of God and joy in the Holy Ghost, and more boldly, usefully, and cheerfully walk in the path of duty (f). The Christian's assurance may in divers ways be shaken and impaired : if he falls into any sin and grieves the Spirit, he loses the light of God's countenance, and walks in darkness (g). But the Christian can never lose that seed of God which is in him, or the life of faith, or the love of Christ. The Spirit restores him in God's good time, and meanwhile keeps him from utter despair. The evil of his sin is revealed to him, and he is chastened by the Lord, that he may not be condemned with the world. But he is strengthened in all his affliction to hope in God; yea, he has hope in his death (h).

34. Of Perseverance in Grace.

Those whom God has made accepted in the beloved, has effectually called, and sanctifies by his Spirit, cannot totally and finally fall away from a state of grace, but will certainly be enabled to persevere to the end and shall be saved (a). Their perseverance depends, not upon their own will, but upon the immutability of God's decree, the election of grace, the strength of the Father's love, the sufficiency of Christ's propitiation, the efficacy of his intercession, their union with Christ, the indwelling of the Spirit, the seed of God within them, the nature and steadfastness of the covenant, and the promise and oath of God. It follows that their perseverance is certain and infallible (b). It is true they may, through the temptations of Satan and the world, the great strength of their inward corruption, and their neglect of the means of grace, fall into sins, and, for a time, continue therein, and thereby incur God's displeasure, grieve the Holy Spirit, impair their grace, lose their comfort, harden their hearts, wound their consciences, involve themselves in temporal judgments, do injury to others, and give occasion to the enemies of the Lord to blaspheme (c). Nevertheless, they will be kept by the power of God through faith unto salvation; yet their fall will be made very bitter to them (d).

Those who continue to live undisturbed in sin, and flatter themselves that they are in a state of grace, have much reason to fear that they deceive themselves (e). For perseverance in grace implies, not only continuance in the possession and enjoyment of privileges, but also continuance in holiness, diligence, and watchfulness, in a holy walk and conversation, in earnest devotion to all duties, and in the use of all means of grace. Nothing is more opposed to sin than perseverance in grace; and he that so endures in grace to the end shall be saved (f).

35. Of the Church.

God has his church in every age, and under every dispensation. It consists of all the people of God in heaven and earth, and may, therefore, be regarded as militant and triumphant. That portion of the church which is on earth, the church militant, consists of all professing Christians throughout the world, and may be divided into the visible church and mystical church (a).

The universal visible church on earth are all those who have been called out and set apart for holy ends, to profess the christian religion, to read the word of God, and to observe the ordinances of the gospel; that is, all who profess themselves believers, together with their children, - unless their parents, through neglect, deprive them of the privileges of the kingdom of heaven, or they themselves despise their birthright, as profane Esau did, or grow up to be persecuting scoffers, who shall be cast out, as Ishmael (b).

A particular visible church is a congregation of faithful men, and their children, assembling with their officers in one place, where the true doctrine is preached, and the ordinances and discipline, which Christ instituted in his church, are observed and enforced (c).

The mystical church is that which God loved, Christ purchased, and the Holy Ghost sanctifies, and which Christ will present to himself a glorious church, not having spot or wrinkle or any such thing. The true church can be but one; for "She is one"; and Christ is her only Head, Prophet, Priest, and King (d).

36. Of the Church Fellowship.

Through their union with Christ, their head, the saints are united to one another, have special communion in each other's spiritual gifts and graces (a), and are bound to perform such duties towards each other as conduce to their mutual profit and edification (b). It is the duty of those who profess godliness to maintain fellowship and communion with each other in the public worship of God, to love each other as brethren, and to do good especially unto them who are of the household of faith, by relieving, according to their ability, and several stations in life, each other's necessities (c).

But this spiritual or religious union and fellowship in church-membership does not annul any tie of natural relationship, or take away or lessen in the slightest degree, the title of any member of the Church to his possessions and goods, personal or civil (e).

37. Of the Ordinances of the Gospel.

Christ, the head of the church, has instituted ordinances, means of grace, and an order of worship, to be used in the church by all his people, - in private, in the family, and in the congregation (a). Through these ordinances, God gives grace, and nourishes and increases grace given. They are the ordinances of preaching, reading and hearing the word, prayer, praise, mutual instruction, conversation, (cydymddiddan), the exercise of every part of church discipline, and the sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's Supper (b).

These ordinances are to be observed especially on the Lord's day (that is, the first day of the week), which was sanctified to be wholly spent in the service of God (c). They are to be observed at other times also. No specific rules have been given respecting the length of the service, the manner of conducting it, and every matter of detail; but the church is to judge and act according to the general rules:- "Let all things be done with charity, unto edification, decently, and in order" (d).

38. Of Baptism.

Baptism is an ordinance which Christ, as King, instituted in his church, to be observed to the end of time (a), and to be administered only by ministers appointed and sent by Christ himself (b). It is duly administered by sprinkling or pouring water on the baptised person, in the name of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost (c). It should be administered but once on the same person (d). All who profess themselves believers, and their infant children, have a scriptural right to this ordinance (e). It is an emblem of their death unto sin, and of newness of life unto righteousness (f). This ordinance is not essentially necessary to salvation; yet it is a sin wilfully to neglect it, inasmuch as that would be an act of disobedience to a positive command of Christ (g). It should be administered publicly in the congregation, except when circumstances require it otherwise (h).

Addendum (Added in 1874) We also recognize in addition to the form referred to in Article 38 the validity of Believer's Baptism by immersion or effusion, and the dedication of infants. The doctrine of Baptism as an ordinance is something to be decided by each individual believer after studying the Scriptures and seeking guidance from the Holy Spirit.

39. Of the Lord's Supper.

The Lord's Supper is, equally with baptism, an ordinance symbolical and sacramental; and no other ordinance than these two is such (a). In this ordinance, by breaking, giving, and receiving bread, by giving, receiving, and drinking of the cup, is shown in the church our Lord's death till he come in the clouds (b). This is done by his command, in remembrance of him, - of his person, his love, his humiliation, his sufferings, his death, and his all-sufficient propitiation (c). By this means we profess that we truly receive him, believe in him, love him, feed upon him by faith, are united to him, and, in him, to one another; and, as good soldiers of Christ, live unto him who died for us (d).

This is an ordinance for the nourishment and growth of believers in grace, to be often observed in the church by all who can discern the Lord's body, examine themselves, and do this in remembrance of Christ (e). It is to be administered by ministers of the gospel, as Christ has prescribed. It is for them to set apart the elements of bread and wine with prayer and thanksgiving, break the bread, take the cup, partake themselves of the elements, and then distribute them to the congregation (f). Ignorant persons and the openly profane, or those who, professing godliness, have fallen into sin, are unworthy, till they repent and amend their ways, to partake of the Lord's Supper : and, if they partake, are guilty of the body and blood of the Lord, and eat and drink damnation to themselves (g).

40. Of Obedience to the Civil Government.

God, the Supreme Ruler and King of all the world (a), has ordained kings and all that are in authority to be, under him, rulers of men, for his own glory, and the common weal of the people (b). He also invests them with authority, to be a terror to evil doers, and, when necessary, to execute wrath upon them. They are also sent by him for the praise and protection of them that do well (c). It is the duty of all the subjects to reverence and honour them; to obey them in all things that are in accordance with the word of God (d); to pray and give thanks for them, to honour and obey their laws, to pay whatever tax or tribute they impose, without murmur, concealment or fraud (e). We should consider our duty to honour and obey the king to rest upon the ordinance and authority of God, whose minister he is, and not upon the king's personal virtues (f).

41. Of Death and the State of Men after Death.

Death consists in the separation of body and soul for a time (a). Though man in his original state was not subject to death, every man, in consequence of sin, is subject to death : "it is appointed unto men once to die" (b). The godly and the ungodly, the one as well as the other, are subject to death (c); but the godly are delivered by Christ from the hurt of death, and to them death is turned into gain, whereas to the wicked it will be an unutterable loss, and the entrance into death everlasting (d). At death the bodies return to the earth and see corruption; but the souls are a spiritual substance, and neither die nor sleep, but are brought at once before the throne of God (e). Then will the spirits of the righteous, made perfect, be received into glory, there to wait, in the full enjoyment of God in Christ, for the redemption of their bodies (f).

But the souls of the unrighteous are cast into hell, where they are reserved in torments and outer darkness for the judgment of the great day. There is no other place for souls departed from the body than these two (g).

42. Of the Resurrection.

All the dead will be raised at the last day, the righteous and the unrighteous; and those that are then alive, not having died, will all be changed (a). However many the bodies that will have been buried, and turned to dust, and mingled with the dust of the earth, they will all be raised, individually, completely, and universally. They that have done good and they that have done evil will all come forth at the voice and by the power of the Son of God; and every soul will be again united to its own body. The body that returned to the earth will be raised, the same in substance, but different in properties and condition (b). This truth is established by the clear testimony of Scripture, and by instances mentioned in the Old and New Testaments of men raised from the dead. Moreover, the body is the soul's companion, whether in sin or in holiness; and since there will be a general judgment, there must needs be a general resurrection (c). The resurrection of Christ proves the resurrection of the saints. He rose as their first fruits. He redeemed the whole man, body and soul. The whole person of the believer, as well as the true church, is united to him. In virtue of their union with Christ, and of his resurrection, as their Head, all believers will be raised in power, glory, and incorruption, fashioned like unto his glorious body (d). The bodies of all the wicked also will be raised by Christ, as a righteous and powerful Judge, to everlasting shame, contempt, and torments. To the natural man, the resurrection of the dead seems improbable, if not impossible. But they that believe the word of God, believe that the dead shall be raised; yea, the doctrine is most important and full of comfort to the children of God. The denial of it casts contempt upon the truth and power of God, and subverts the hope of the saints (e).

43. Of the general Judgment.

God has appointed a day in which he will judge the world in righteousness by that man whom he has ordained (a). The justice of God demands the appointment of such a day; the accusations of natural conscience witness to it; the relation subsisting between God and his creatures shows its necessity; the ascension of Christ and the positive testimonies of Scripture certainly prove it and place the doctrine beyond all doubt or question (b). God appointed a day of judgment to manifest the glory of his love and grace in the salvation of his church (c), the glory of his justice and power in the condemnation of impenitent sinners (d), and the equity of his government over all men, in all things, throughout all ages (e). God has appointed Jesus Christ to be the Judge of the world in order that he, who, at his first appearance, humbled himself, obscured his glory, and endured the shame, may appear to all in infinite greatness and glory (f). Christ, therefore, will be the Judge, and men and fallen angels will be judged (g). The rule of the judgment will be the books that shall be opened; and the time of the judgment will be the day appointed for that purpose. This judgment will, it is certain, be a general, righteous, and final judgment on all things for ever and ever.

Christ desired to declare the certainty of a day of judgment, to deter men from presumptuous sin, and to comfort the godly in their afflictions (h). But, though a day is appointed in which he will judge the world, he did not wish it known when the day would come, that men might not be careless, but ever watchful and ready (I).

44. Of the Eternal State of the Wicked and the Godly.

At the general judgment, the wicked and the godly will be fixed in their eternal habitations, and their place, state, and condition will never be changed (a). By the power of the sentence pronounced by the Judge at the great day upon the wicked on his left hand, "Depart from me, ye cursed," etc.(b), they "shall go away into everlasting punishment"; and their punishment will certainly be righteous because it proceeds from the Omniscient, who sees all secret things, the Judge of all the earth, the essentially righteous God, for whom it is impossible to subvert a man in his cause (c). Their punishment involves the total loss of all happiness, all consolation, and all hope of being ever saved. It involves also unutterable torment, for they "shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power" (d); and Scripture says "that their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched," that they shall be cast into "the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone," and into outer darkness, bound hand and foot : there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth; and their punishment will be everlasting (e).

But as to the godly, they shall go, at the gracious call of the Judge, into life eternal. This will be a life perfectly free from sin and all its consequences; and it will bring with it the full fruition of all happiness, glory, and consolation that human nature made perfect is capable of enjoying (f). This glory will essentially consist in beholding the glory of the Lord shining in all the perfections of his nature, in enjoying his peace without ceasing, in admiring and loving him, rejoicing in him, serving him and becoming like him; and its endless duration will be the crown of its excellence (g). Various expressions are used in Scripture to set forth the eternal glory of the saints; such as "entering into the joy of their Lord"; "the eternal weight of glory"; "being satisfied with the likeness of God"; "reigning with the Lord," and that without ceasing and for ever (h).

Scripture References To Clauses 1 - 44.

Clause 1.

(a) 1 Tim. 2:5; Isa. 44:5; Rom. 2:14,15.

(b) Psa. 19:1-3; Rom. 1:20.

(c) Isa. 40:26; Psa. 148:5,6; 2 Pet. 3:5.

(d) Psa. 103:19; Jer. 8:7; Job 39

(e) Exod. 5:2; Exod. 9:27; Exod.14:25.


  Clause 2.

(a) Isa. 8:20; 2 Tim. 3:16,17; Rom. 15:4; Luke 16:29-31; Rev. 22:18,19.

(b) Exod. 3:14; Isa 42:8,9; Josh. 21:45; Psa 119:18.

(c) 2 Pet. 1:20,21; Psa. 12:6; Psa. 19:8; John 10:35.

(d) Isa. 40:8; Isa. 59:21; Matt. 24:35; Rom. 3:1,2.

(e) Heb. 4:12; Psa. 19:7; Rom. 1:16.

(f) Hos. 8:12; Psa. 111:7,8; 2 Cor. 10:4,5; Rev. 22:18,19.

Clause 3.

(a) Rom. 1:20; 1 Cor. 8:4-6; Deut. 6:4.

(b) Matt. 11:27; 1 Cor. 2:14.

(c) Heb. 1:1; 2 Pet. 1:19; 1 John 5:9; Matt. 22:29.

(d) John 4:24; Job 11:7; 1 Tim. 1:17; Luke 24:39; James 1:17; Heb. 1:12; Mal. 3:6; Jer. 23:23,24; Psa. 145:3-17; Gen. 17:1; Rom. 16:26; Isa. 6:3; Exod. 3:14; Eph. 1:11; 1 Kings 8:27; Rom. 11:36.

(e) Exod. 34:6,7; Heb. 11:6; Psa. 5:6; Psa. 130:4; Neh. 9:32,33; Nah. 1:2,3.

(f) Psa. 89:6; Jer. 10:7; Isa 40:18; Gen. 1:27; Eph. 4:24; Col. 3:10.

Clause 4.

(a) 1 John 5:7; Matt. 3:16,17; Matt. 28:19; 2 Cor. 13:14; John 1:1,2,14,18; John 15:26; Gal. 4:6.

(b) Heb. 1:3; Col. 1:15,16; Acts 5:3,4; Acts 13:2-4; Acts 15:28; Acts 20:28; Psa.139:7-10; John 5:26; Matt. 17:5.

(c) Col. 1:17; John 1:1; John 21:17; Matt. 18:20; Rev. 1:11; Isa. 9:6; Gen. 1:1; Heb. 9:14; 1 Cor. 2:10; 1 Cor. 3:16; Luke 1:35; Acts 6:10

(d) John 3:16; John 14:21; John 15:9; John 16:14,15,27; Rom.15:30; 2 Cor. 8:9.

(e) Job 11:7-9; Psa. 145:3.

Clause 5.

(a) Eph. 1:11; Isa. 14:24-27; Isa. 46:10,11; Job 14:5; Job 38:10,11; Psa. 148:6; Prov. 8:29; Jer. 5:22; Deut. 32:8; Dan. 4:35; Matt. 10:29,30; Acts 4:28; Acts 15:18; Acts 17:26.

(b) Prov.18:13; Jer. 18:4-10; Matt. 11:26; Isa. 46:10; Rom. 9:19-21.

(c) Rom.11:33.

(d) Psa. 145:17. (I) 2 Tim. 1:9.

(e) Eph. 3:11. (j) Eph. 1:4.

(f) Rom. 9:15,16. (k) Rom. 8:28-30

(g) Eph. 1:11. (l) Job 23:13,14; Rom. 9:11.

(h) Deut. 29:29. (m) Isa. 46:10.

Clause 6

(a) Gen. 1:1-2:2; Heb. 1:2,3; Heb. 11:3; Job 26:13; Job 33:4; Psa. 33:6,9; Psa. 115:3; Rev. 4:11; Prov. 16:4; Jer. 10:12; Rom. 1:20; Col. 1:16; Acts 17:20; Exod. 20:11.

Clause 7.

(a) Heb. 1:3; Psa. 103:19.

(b) Dan. 4:34,35; Acts 17:25,26,28; Job 38-41; Psa. 104:24.

(c) Prov. 15:3; Matt. 10:29,30; Isa. 14:24,27; Isa. 40:26; Isa. 43:13; Rom. 8:28.

(d) Psa. 76:10; 2 Kings 19:28; Gen. 50:20; Psa. 50:21; 2 Sam. 16:10; Acts 2:23,24; Acts 4:27,28.

Clause 8.

(a) Gen. 1:26,27; Gen. 2:7; Matt. 10:28; Matt. 16:26; Heb. 12:9; Acts 7:59,60. 2 Eccles. 7:29; Col. 3:10; Eph. 4:24; Rom. 2:14,15; Gen. 9:6.

(b) Gen. 3:6; Psa. 49:12; Rom. 5:12; Eccles. 7:29.

(c) Gen. 1:28; Gen. 2:19,20; Psa. 8:6,7.

Clause 9.

(a) Gen. 2:16,17; Hos. 6:7 [marginal reading]; Rom. 5:12-21; Rom. 7:10; Rom. 10:5; 1 Cor. 15:22,45-49; Matt. 19:17.

(b) James 2:10.

(c) Gen. 2,3; 1 Cor. 15:22; Rom. 5:12,18,19.

Clause 10.

(a) Eccles. 7:29; Rom 5:12.

(b) Gen. 3:6-8,13; 2 Cor. 11:3; Rom 3:23.

(c) Rom. 5:12; Rom. 7:10; Gal. 3:10; Eph. 2:1; Tit. 3:3; Jer 17:9.

(d) Eccles. 7:29; Psa. 14:1-4; Rom 3:10-19; Rom. 8:7,8; Job 14:4; Mark 7:21-23; Tit. 1:15; Col. 1:21.

(e) Rom. 5:12-21; 1 Cor.15:21,22.

(f) Rom. 3:10; Rom. 5:6; Rom. 7:14; Gen. 6:5; Gen. 8:21; James 1:14; James 3:2; Eph. 2:2,3; Matt. 15:19; Prov. 20:9.

(g) 1 John 3:4; Rom. 1:18; Rom. 3:9,19; Rom. 6:23; John 3:36.

Clause 11.

(a) Isa 64:6; Eph. 2:3; Psa. 51:5.

(b) Rom 5:12,18; 1 Cor. 15:22; Deut. 27:26; Gal. 3:10.

(c) Eph. 2:1-3; Eph. 4:18; Col. 1:21; Gen. 2:17; Gen. 6:5; Job 21:14; Rom. 6:23; Rom. 8:7.

Clause 12.

(a) Isa 42:1; Psa. 89:19; Eph. 1:22,23; Eph. 5:25; Heb. 7:22; 1 Pet. 1:18,19; Gal. 1:4; Matt. 1:21.

(b) Eph. 1:4,11; John 13:18; Rom. 8:29,30,33; 2 Tim. 1:9; 1 Thess. 5:9; Rev. 5:9,10; Rev. 7:9.

(c) Matt. 28:18-20; Acts 26:18.

(d) Eph. 1:4; Eph. 3:11.

(e) Rom. 9:13,14; Psa. 145:17.

(f) Rom. 9:17-24.

(g) Eph. 1:5-11; Matt. 11:25,26; Luke 12:32.

(h) John 13:18.

(I) Rom 9:11,28,29.

(j) Matt. 24:22,24,31; Rom. 11:23.

 Clause 13.

(a) Psa. 40:6-8; Isa. 49:1-6; Isa. 53:10-12; John 17:4-5.

(b) Psa. 89:3; Zech. 6:13.

(c) John 10:18; John 12:49; John 14:31; John 18:11; Heb. 2:10; Heb. 9:15-17; Heb. 10:5-10; Zech. 13:7; Isa. 53:10-12.

(d) Psa. 40:6-8; Heb. 7:22; Heb. 10:5-10; John 6:39; John 17:2,12; Eph. 1:22,23; Eph. 5:23; 1 Cor. 15:21,22, 45-49.

(e) Isa. 59:21; Heb. 2:4; John 7:39; John 14:16,26; John 15:26; John 16:8-9; 1 Thess. 1:5,6; 2 Cor. 3:6-8; Gal. 4:6.

(f) Isa. 53:5,6,10,11; Psa. 40:6-8; Rom. 5:6; Rom. 8:3,4; 2 Cor. 5:21; Gal. 4:4,5; Matt. 20:28; 1 Peter 2:24.

(g) Psa. 110:1-3; John 6:39-44; John 17:2,4,5; Isa. 49:5,8; Isa. 53:10,12; Acts 2:33-36; Phil. 2:6-8; Luke 24:26; Tit. 1:2; Rom. 5:10; Rom. 8:17,33,34; 2 Tim. 1:9; 1 Cor. 1:30; 2 Cor. 1:20.

(h) Ezek. 20:37; Ezek. 36:24-28; Zech. 9:11; Isa. 49:24,25; Rom. 8:1,17,33; Heb. 8:8,10; Jer. 31:31-40; 2 Tim 1:1; John 17:24; Eph. 2:8; 1 Cor. 3:22,23; 1 John 2:25.

(I) Heb. 1:1,2; Heb. 4:2; Heb. 8:8; Heb. 12:28; 2 Cor. 3:6-18.

(j) Hos. 14:4; Isa. 54:10; Luke 1:72; 1 Cor. 3:21-23; Zech. 8:8; Heb. 9:12; 2 Sam. 23:5.

Clause 14.

(a) Heb. 1:3. (h) Rom. 3:25.

(b) John 1:18. (I) Isa. 53:6, 10; 2 Cor. 5:21

(c) John 10:30; 17:11, 21-22; 1 John 2:22-23. (j) Acts 2:24; Rom. 4:25.

(d) I John 5:7. (k) Eph. 1:4.

(e) Matt. 11:27. (l) John 6:44, 65.

(f) Isa. 42:5. (m) Psa. 110:1; Rom. 8:17.

(g) Heb. 10:5.

Clause 15.

(a) Gal. 4:4; Rom. 1:3-4; 8:3; 9:5; John 1:1, 2, 14; 3:16; 5:27; 1 John 5:20; Phil. 2:6; Heb. 2:14-17; 4:15; 1 Peter 3:18; 1 Tim. 3:16; Col. 1:19; 2:3; Luke 1:27, 31, 35; Acts 10:38.

(b) Isa. 7:14; Isa 9:6; Psa 110:1; Mic. 5:2; Heb. 4:14-15; Heb. 12:24;

1 Tim. 2:5; Phil. 2:6-8; Zech. 6:12; Jer. 23:5-6.

(c) Psa. 40:7; Psa 14:7; John 3:34; Heb. 5:1-6; 7:26; 8:3; 9:22; 10:5, 9; Gal. 3:13; 4:4; Matt. 3:15; 5:17; Phil. 2:8; 2 Cor. 5:21; Rom. 8:3-4.

(d) Isa. 42:21; Gal. 3:13 Matt. 17:5; Rom. 3:25; Heb. 9:14, 24, 10:14; Acts 2:22-27; I Cor. 15:3-5; Eph. 5:2; Col. 1:19-20.

(e) Heb. 9:14; 1 Peter 3:18; Acts 3:15; 20:28; 1 Cor. 2:8; John 3:13; I John 3:16.

(f) Rom. 9:5; Matt. 25:31; Rev. 5:5-6; 22:6.

Clause 16.

(a) Heb. 9:15; 13:20; Eph. 5:23; Matt. 1:21; John 6:27; 10:11; Rom. 3:25.

(b) Col. 1:19; 2:9-10; Heb. 7:26; Psa 45:2; Prov. 8:23; Isa. 11: 1-3; 6:1-2; John 3:34; Acts 4:27; 10:38. (c) Deut. 18:18-19; John 1:18; Matt. 17:5; Acts 3:22-23; Luke 7:16.

(d) 1 Peter 1:11-12; Eph. 4:11-12; 1 Cor. 2:10-16; 12:6-11; Titus 3:5-6; John 16:7; 13-14; 1 John 2:20, 27.

(e) Psa 110:4; Matt. 20:28; 26:28; Heb. 5:8-10; 7:26-27; Heb 9:13-14, 28; Heb.10:14, 20; Rom. 3:25.

(f) Isa. 53:10-12; Heb. 7:24-25; John 17:24; Rom. 5:10; Rom. 8:33,34; 1 John 2:1.

(g) Psa. 2:6; 45:3-6; 110:2; Eph 1:22; Matt. 28:18; Prov. 8:15-16; John 10:28-29; 14:2; 17:2; Luke 1:33; Col. 1:13; 3:1-3; Phil. 2:9-10; 1 Peter 1:5; 1 Cor. 15:24-25; Rev. 3:21; 22:12.

Clause 17.

(a) Isa. 52:13-15; 53:12.

(b) John 1:14; Gal. 4:4; Heb. 2:14; Phil. 2:6-7; 2 Cor. 5:21.

(c) Luke 1:35; 2:12; Matt. 2:13. 16; 8:20; 2 Cor. 8:9; Isa. 53:3; Heb. 12:2.

(d) 1 Peter 3:18; Heb. 5:7; Phil. 2:8; Zech. 13:7; Matt. 26:38-39; 27:46; Luke 22:53; John 18:11.

(e) Isa. 42:21; Rom. 5:19; 8:3; 10:4; Matt. 3:17; John I: 29 ; 17:4; Heb. 2:14; 9:14; Hos. 13:14; 1 Cor. 15:55-57; Isa. 53:5; Gal. 3:13; Eph. 5:25-26; 2 Cor. 5:21; Zech. 13:1.

(f) Matt. 5:1-2; 7:28-29; 11:29.

(g) Mark 1:27; 4:41; John 18:8.

(h) Heb. 10:12.

(I) Luke 23:34: 24:50-51.

(j) John 17:4, 13; 19:30; Phil. 2:9-11.

(k) Eph. 4:9-10; John 3:13.

(l) Isa. 52:13, 15; Acts 2:32; 1:9; 10:42; 17:30-31; Rom. 4:25 8:34; Psa. 47:5; 110:1; Heb. 1:3.

(m) John 14:6; Acts 4:12; Eph. 1:3; 3:8.

(n) Heb. 9:24; 1 John 2:1; Heb. 7:24-25; Matt. 28:18; John 16:7: Eph. 4:11-12; Acts 2:33.

Clause 18.

(a) Gal. 3:13; 4:5; Rom. 5:9; Rev. 5:9; Titus 2:14; Matt. 20:28; Acts 20:28; 1 Cor. 6:20; 1 Peter 1:18-19.

(b) John 3:16; 1 John 4:9-10; Rom 5:6-10; Eph. I :7.

(c) Psa. 40:6-8; Heb. 10:5-10; Eph. 3:10-11: Zech. 6:13; Isa. 49:3-7 Acts 4:28.

(D ) Psa. 89:19; Isa. 42:1.

(e) Heb. 2:14-17; 10:5; Lev. 25 : 25.

(f) Eph. 5:2, 25-26; John 17:2, 9; 18:8-9.

(g) Gal. 4:4; Luke 2:7.

(h) Isa. 53:5-6.

(I) 2 Cor. 5:21; 1 Peter 2:24.

(j) John 10:15.

(k) Isa. 53:5-6, 12 (see (h); 1 Peter 3:18; Heb. 2:10; 9:28; 10:10-14.

(l) Gal. 4:5; John 1:16, 6:39-40; 10:28, 17:24; Col. 1:14; 19 Rom. 8:29-30; Eph. 2:6; Titus 2:14.

(m) John 6:39-40 (see L); 7:39; 14:6; 16:7: Acts 2:33; Gal. 3:13-14 4:4-6: Heb. 10:19-20; Matt. 1:21; Eph. 1:7; 1 John 5:11.

Clause 19.

(a) I John 2:1. (f) 1 John 2:2.

(b) John 17. (g) John 16:27.

(c) Heb. 1:3; 8:1; 9:24; 10:12; 12:2. (h) John 17:24; 18:9; Luke 22:32.

(d) John 20:17. (I) I Kings 8:22-53.

(e) Matt. 17:5.

Clause 20.

(a) 1 John 5:7; Matt. 28:19; 2 Cor. 13:14.

(b) Ezek. 11:5; Isa. 63:10; Heb. 3:7-9.

(c) Heb. 9:14; Psa. 139:7; Isa. 63:10.

(d) Isa. 6:3; Acts 13:2; Matt. 28:19.

(e) Gen. 1:2; Psa. 104:30; Job 26:13: 32:8: Matt. 12:48.

(f) 1 Peter 1:2; Eph. I :13.

(g) Luke I :35.

(h) Isa. 11:1-2; John 3:34.

(I) 2 Peter 1:21.

(j) Acts 2:33: 13:2, 4: 16:5. 7; 20:28; 1 Cor. 12; Luke 24:49.

(k) John 16:8.

(l) John 3:5, 8.

(m) Rom. 8:14.

(n) John 14:16.

(o) Rom. 8:11.

(p) Eph. 2:8.

(q) 2 Thess. 2:13; I Peter I :2.

(r) John 16:8; Acts 2:37.

(s) Phil 1:6.

(t) Jer. 32:38-39.

(u) Jer. 31:3.

(v) John 14:26; 16:7; G . 4:5-6.

Clause 21.

(a) John 3:3, 5; 5:40; 6:44; 8:24; Luke 13:3.

(b) Jer. 31:33-34; Ezek. 11:19-20; 36:25-27; John 6:37; Luke 15:4-10 Phil. 2:13.

(c) John 16:7-9, 14; Rom. 15:13, 30; 1 Cor. 2:10; Isa. 63:10; Jer. 31:3 Eph. 4:30; 2 Thess. 2:13; Rev. 22:17.

Clause 22.

(a) Mark 16:15; 1 Cor. 2:2; Acts 4:12; Rom. 10:17. (g) 2 Cor. 10:4-5.

(b) Isa. 45:22; 55:1, 7; Matt. 11:28. (h) Acts 26:18; Col.1:13.

(c) 2 Tim. 1:9; Rom. 8:28, 30; Acts 9:4. (I) Psa. 110:3 (see (d)).

(d) Psa. 110:3; 45:5; Rev. 6:2. (j) John 16:13.

(e) Rom. I :16; I Peter I :5. (k) I Peter 5:10.

(f) John 5:25; Eph. 2:1.

Clause 23.

(a) 1 Cor. 1:30; 6:17; John 17:26; Eph. 2:21-22; 3:17; Col. 1:27.

(b) Eph. 1:4; Heb. 7:22; 2 Cor. 5:21; 2 Thess. 2:13; Rom. 16:13 2 Tim. 1:9; Titus 1:2.

(c) Eph. 2:3, 11-13.

(d) John 6:56; 14:20; 15:4-7; 16:8-10; 17:21; Col. 1:13; Eph. 2:10 3:17; 2 Cor. 5:17; 1 John 5:20; 1 Cor. 6:15.

(e) 1 John 5:11-12; Gal. 2:20; Col. 3:3; Heb. 3:14; 1 Cor. 3:22-239 6:19; 2 Tim. I :14; Rom. 8:11; John I :16.

(f) Eph. 4:16; 5:30; Col. 1:18; 2:7; Gal. 2:20 see (e); John 14 : 19-20.

(g) Rom. 5:12-21; 7:4; 8:1; 1 Cor. 15:22-23, 49: Heb. 8:8-12 Eph. 3:19; Phil. 4:19.

Clause 24.

(a) Isa. 45:25, 54:17; Jer. 23:6; Phil. 3:9; 2 Cor. 5:21; Rom. 3:22 24-25; 4:5; 5:1, 19; Acts 13:38-39; Dan. 9:24; Eph. 2:8.

(b) Rom. 3:24-26; 4:25; 5:8, 19; 10:4; Isa. 53:11; 2 Cor. 5:21, see (a); Eph. 5:2; Titus 3:7.

(c) Phil. 3:9; Gal. 2:16; Rom. 3:28; 5:1.

(d) Psa. 32:1-2; Rom. 4:3-9.

(e) 2 Cor. 5:21 see (a); Rom. 5:1 see (a); Isa. 32:17.

(f) Rom. 5:2, 18.

(g) Titus 3:7; Rom 8:30.

Clause 25.

(a) Eph. 1:5; Cal. 4:5; Rom. 8 :17; John 1: 12.

(b) Jer. 14:9; 2 Cor. 6:18; Rom. 8:15; Eph. 3:12; Gal. 4:6; Psa. 103:13; Matt 5:48; 1 Peter 5:7.

(c) Heb. 12:6-10.

(d) Lam. 3:31; Gal. 4:30; Heb. 1:14; 1 Peter 1:4; lsa. 56:5; 1 John 3:1-2; Matt. 25:34; Rom. 8:17 see (a).

Clause 26.

(a) John 3:37 5; 2 Cor. 5:17; 2 Peter 1:4; Col. 6:15.

(b) Eph. 4:24; 2 Cor. 5:17 see (a).

(c) 2 Peter 1:4 see (a); Gal. 5:24; Col. 3:9-10; 1 John 3:14; 5:1. 18: Eph. 2:10; Phil. 4:13; Ezek. 36:27; Rom. 6:13-14; Heb. 2:12.

(d) Matt. 5:48; 2 Cor. 3:18; Rom. 8:29.

(e) John 1:13; 1 Peter 1:3, 23; Titus 3:5; Ezek. 36:26; Eph. 2:1, 4-5: 4:24; James 1:18; I Cor. 4:15: Philem :10; 2 Cor. 5:17 see (a).

(f) 1 John 3:9: 5:4; Rom. 8:17.

  Clause 27.

(a) 1 Cor. 6:11; Acts 20:32; Rom. 6:4, 6.

(b) Heb. 12:14; 2 Cor. 7:1; Gal. 5:24; Rom. 8:13; 1 Peter 1:15-16.

(c) John 17:17; 2 Thess. 2:13; Eph. 3:16-19; 5:26.

(D ) Rom. 6:6, 14; 8:13 see (b); Col. 3:2-3, 5; 1 Peter 4:2.

(e) Psa. 51:6-10; I Peter 2:2; Eph. 4:24.

(f) 1 Thess. 5:23; 1 Cor. 6:19-20; Rom. 6:13; 7:18, 23; 1 John 1:8: Phil. 3:12.

(g) I Peter 2:11; Gal. 5:17; Rom. 7:23 see (f); James 1:14. (h) Rom. 6:14; I John 5:4; 2 Peter 1:4-8; Phil. 1:6; Heb. 12:1-2.

(I) 2 Peter 3:18; 2 C)or. 3:18: 7:1 see (b); Prov. 4:18; Phil. 1:6 see (h). (j) Eph. 1:4; 5:26-27; Rev. 7:14.

Clause 28.

(a) Eph. 1:19; 2:8.

(b) 2 Thess. 2:13; Acts 24:14; I John 5:10.

(c) Gen. 6:22; 12:1-4; Isa. 66:2; Heb. 11:7-8. 13.

(d) Rom. 1:16-17, 3:25; 5:19; 7:9; Acts 2:37; 4:12; 15:11; 16:30-31; Phil. 3:9.

(e) John 1:12, 3:14-15, 6:47; Acts 4:12 see (d); Eph. 3:17; I Tim. 1:15; Rom. 8:1; Phil. 3:9 see (d).

(f) Titus 1:1; Eph. 2:8 see (a); Heb. 10:39; Rom. 3:28; 4:13; 5:1; 13:14; Gal. 3:24; 5:6; Acts 15:9; 1 Tim. 1:5;1 r. 13 :13; Luke 22:32; 2 Thess. 1:3: Isa. 27:5: 28:16; 45:22; M att. 9:22; Psa. 40:4; John 6:54.

(g) Heb. 5:12-14; Rom. 4:19-20; Rom. 14:1: Matt. 6:30; Matt. 8:10: 15:28.

(h) Eph. 6:16; 1 John 5:4-5.

(i) Eph. 2:10: James 2:17-26; Heb. 11:1-39; Titus 2:14.

 Clause 29.

(a) Zech.12:10; Acts 11:18: 20:21; Mark. 1:15.

(b) 1 Kings 8:46; Psa. 19:12; 51:3-4, 7,10: 89:32; Hos 14 :1-4; Jer. 32:39; Heb. 3:13: James 3:2.

(c) Ezek. 16:60-61; 18:30-31; 36:31; Psa. 51:4; Joel 2:12-13; Amos 5:15; Hos. 14:2; 2 Kings 23:25; 2 Cor. 7:11; Psa. 25:11.

(d) Rom. 7:24; Psa. 32:5; 51:7-14; 1 John 1:8-9; Luke 19:8; Josh. 7:19.

(e) Luke 13:3; Acts 17:30: Rom. 5:12: 6:23: 8:1: Isa. 1:18; 55:7; 2 Sam. 12:13.

(f) Luke 24:47: 2 Tim. 2:25; Acts 3:19.

  Clause 30.

(a) Gal. 3:13; 4:4-5; Rom. 8:3-4; 10:4.

(b) Gen. 1:26: 2:17; Rom. 2:14: 5:13; 10:5; Eccles. 7:29: Job 28:28.

(c) Exod. 20:3-17; Deut. 5:6-2; Rom. 5:20; Gal. 3:24.

(d) Matt. 5:17-48; 22:36-40; Rom. 13:8, 10.

(e) Rom. 2:14 see (b): 3:19; Matt. 5:48; 22:36-40; Psa.19:7; James 1:25.

(f) Deut. 5:32-33; 12:32; Psa. 119:152, 160; Rom. 7:12, 14; I Tim. 1:8; Eph. 6:1-2; James 2:10; Matt. 5:17-18.

(g) Gal. 3:17 see (a); 4:4-5 see (a); Rom. 8:3 see (a), 10:4 see (a); Matt. 5:17 see (f); Isa. 42:21.

(h) Heb. 8:10; Psa. 119:97; Rom. 7:22. 25; 1 Cor. 7:19; Matt. 5:19; James 1:23-25: Jer. 31:33; Eph. 5:1; 2 Cor. 7 v 1; 1 Jo 3:3.

Clause 31.

(a) Rom. 10:2; 12:2; Mic. 6:8; Matt. 15:9; Isa. 29:13; 1 Sam. 15: 22-23; John 16:2.

(b) Eph. 2:10; James 2:22; Matt. 5:16; 7:16-20; I Tim. 1:5; I Tim. 2:9-10; 2 Tim. 2:21: John 14:15: 15:1-8; Rom. 14:23; Titus 2:14; 3:14.

(c) Luke 17:10; Rom. 3:20; Eph. 2:9; Titus 3:5; Job 22:2; Psa.130:3; 143:2; Isa. 64:6; 2 Tim. 1:9; Gal. 5:6.

(d) John 14:15; 15:8; Eph. 2:10 see (b); Titus 2:5-12; 1 Tim. 6:1; I Peter 2:12. 15; Phil. 1:11; Rom. 6:22; I John 3:7-10; Col. 1:10.

Clause 32.

(a) Rom. 5:1; 1 John 4:13; 3:14, 21; Acts 24:16.

(b) Gen. 39:9; Rom. 7:14 18; I Tim. 1:19.

(c) Rom. 5:11: Heb. 10:19-22; 2 Cor. 1:12: 5:19; Rom. 8:16; 1 Cor. 2:12.

(d) Rom. 6:1-2; Col. 3:1-3; 2 Cor. 7:1; I John 3:3; Jude 2:3; I Peter 1:15; 2:11.

(e) I John 1:6; Deut. 29:19; Phil. 3:18-19.

(f) 2 Cor. 1:12 see (c); 1 John 1:7: 3:21; 14:23; 15:14; Isa. 32:17; Psa.18 v. 23; 119:165; Acts 9:31; 1 Thess. 3:13.

(g) Psa 34:7; 51:1-14; Jer. 2:17; 4:18; Luke 22:61-62.

(h) Psa 66:18-19; 73:28; Heb. 10:22; James 4:8; 2 Cor. 1:12 see (c);

Phil. 1:19-23; Luke 2:29: I Cor. 15:55: Rom. 5:2.

Clause 33.

(a) Job 20:5; Prov.11:7; Luke 6:49; Matt. 25:11-12.

(b) Heb. 6:11, 17-19; 1 John 2:3: 2 Cor. 5:1; Rom. 5:2, 5.

(c) 1 John 1:3-4, 7: 3:2; Heb. 10:19-23; 2 Cor. 1:21-22; 4:17; 5:5; Phil. 1:21; 2 Sam. 23:5; Rom. 8:16; 15:13.

(d) 1 John 2:28; 2 Peter 1:10; 1 Cor 3:2; Heb. 5:12-14.

(e) John 14:26; Rom. 8:26-27; 15:13 see (c); 1 Cor. 2:10-12.

(f) 2 Peter 1:10; Titus 3:5; Psa. 119:32; Eph. 3:17-19; Rom, 14:7; Acts 9:31.

(g) Psa 31:22: 51:8. 12: 77:2-9; Matt. 26:69-72; Isa. 57:17; Eph. 4:30.

(h) 1 John 3:9; Luke 22:32; John 13:15; Psa. 73:14; Mic. 7:8,9; Isa. 54:7-10.

Clause 34.

(a) 2 Peter 1:10; Phil. 1:6: John 6:35. 39-40; 10:28-29; I Peter 1:5 -9; Prov. 4:18; Psa. 84:7.

(b) Rom.8:31-39, 9:11,16; 2 Tim. 2:19; Jer. 31. 3; Job 10:28 see (a); 13:1, 14:16-17; 17:11; 1 Peter 3:18: Heb. 7:25 9:12; 10,:14; Luke 22:32; 1 John 2:19; 2 Thess. 3:3.

(c) Psa. 30:7, 32:3, 51:8-14; Matt. 26:70-74; 2 Sam. 11:27: 12:14; Isa.64:5; Rev. 2:4: Song Sol. 5:6.

(d) I Peter 1:5 see (a); Jude 1:24-25; Isa 54:7-10; Jer 2:19: 3:12: 4:18; Psa 89:31-34.

(e) Rom. 6:1-2; Phil. 3:18-19: 2 Peter 2:8; Heb. 4:1.

(f) I Peter 1:13-15; Rom. 2:7; Heb. 12:1-2; 6:11; 2 Peter 1:5-8; 2 Tim. 2:3-5; 1 Cor. 9:24-27; Matt. 24:13; Rev. 2:10

Clause 35.

(a) Col. 1:18; Acts 7:38; Heb. 11:2-40: Matt. 25:1-4.

(b) Psa. 2:6, 90:16; 147:13; Rev. 7:9; Rom.15:9-11; Eph. 2:13; 19 22 3:15, 21, 4:11-12, 6:4; 1 Tim. 3:15; 1 Cor. 1:2; 7:14: 12:13; Matt. 13:47; Isa. 65:23; 66:22; Acts 2:39; Gen. 25:33-34; Deut. 10:15; Ezek. 47:23; Jer. 30:20; Joel 2:16-17; Prov. 22:6.

(c) 2 Cor. 1:1; 8:1; Gal. 1:22; I Thess. 1:1; Acts 15:41; I Cor. 14:34; Rom. 16:4; Col. 4:15; Rev. 1:11-20: 2 & 3.

(d) Eph. 1:10, 22-23, 4:4 5:23. 25-27: 5:32; Acts 3:22; 20:28; 1 Cor. 12:27; Matt. 16:18; Col. 1:18; Heb 4:14: 7:25,26. 12:23; Psa m 2:6 see (h): 45:13-15.

Clause 36.

(a) 1 John 1:3; 3:14; Eph. 2:6 ; 3:17-19; 4:3-6; 1 Cor. 12 : 26-27; Acts 4:32.

(b) Rom. 1:11-14; 15:5-7; I Thess. 5:11-14; Eph. 4:15-6; I Cor. 3:21-22: 14:12-40.

(c) Eph. 4:3-7; Heb. 3:13; 10:24-25; Acts 2:42-45 11:29-30; 1 John 3:16-18; Gal. 6:2. 10; Mal. 3:16; Col. 3:16; 1 Peter 4:10-11.

(d) Exod. 20:15; Eph. 4:28; 6:1-9; Acts 5:4; 1 Cor. 7:24, 39; 1 Peter 3:7-8; 1 Tim, 5:1-3; Rom. 12:6-16.

Clause 37.

(a) Deut. 12:32; Josh. .24:14; Eph. 4:11-14; Psa.119:68; Prov. 8:34; 2 Chron. 34:31; Luke 1:6; Matt. 18:20.

(b) Matt. 6:5; 13:19; 28:19; Mark 11:24; 16:15; Acts 2:42; 10:2, 33, 42; 15:21; 1 Tim. 2:8; 2 Tim. 4:2; Rev. 1:3; John 4:21; 5:39; 14:13-14; James 5:13; Heb. 3:13; 10:24-25; Isa. 66:2; Phil, 4:6; Eph. 5:19; 6:18; Col. 3:16; 4:2; Psa. 65:1; 1 Peter 2:2; Rom. 8:26; 1 Thess. 5:17; Eccles. 5:1; 1 Cor. 14:19; Jer. 10:25; 1 Cor. 11:23-26.

(c) Exod. 20:8; Isa. 56:6-7; Acts 20:7; 1 Cor. 16:2; Rev. 1:10; 2 Tim. 4:2 see (b).

(d ) 1 Cor 14:26,40; 16:14; Eph. 4:15-16.

Clause 38.

(a) Matt. 28:19, 20; Gal. 3:27; John 1:33; 3:26; 4:2; Rom. 6:3.

(b) Matt. 28:19 see (a); Heb. 5:4.

(c) Matt. 28:19 see (a); Acts 1:5; 8:36-38 ; 10:47-48; 1 Peter 1:2; 1 Cor. 10:2; Heb. 10:22; 12:24; Isa. 52:15; Ezek. 36:25; John 1:33.

(d) Eph. 4:5.

(e) Mark 10:13-16; 15:16 ; Acts 2:38-39; 16:33; Gen. 17:7; 1 Cor. 7:14; 10:2; Isa. 40:1; Gal. 3:27-29; Psa. 127:3; Luke 18:15-16; 1 John 2:12.

(f) Rom. 6:3-4; Zech.13:; 1 John 1:7; Gal. 3:27 see (a); Titus 3:5; John 3:5-7.

(g) G al. 6:15; Acts 2:38; Luke 7:30; Mark 16:16.

(h) Acts 2:38 see (g); 10:2-48.

Clause 39.

(a) 1 Cor. 10:16-17,21; 11:23-26; 12:13.

(b) Matt. 26:26-28; Mark 14:22-24; Luke 22:19-20; 1 Cor. 11:26.

(c) 1 Cor. 11:24-25.

(d) John 1:12; 6:53-58; Eph. 3:17; 1 Cor. 10:17; 2 Tim. 2:3; 2 Cor. 5:15.

(e) 1 Cor. 11:26; 28 see ( b); Acts 2:42,46; 20:7; John 6:54-57 see (c).

(f) 1 Cor. 4:1; 10:17 see (a); Rom. 10:15; Matt. 28:19-20; Mark 14:23.

(g) 1 Cor. 11:27, 29; 2 Thess. 3:6, 14; Psa. 50:16-17; 2 Co r. 6:16-17.

Clause 40.

a) Psa. 47:2, 95:3; 103:19; Dan .4:34-37; Jer. 10:10; Prov. 8:15-16.,

(b) Rom. 13:1-2: 4; Psa. 21:5: 82:3-4; 138:4-5; Isa. 49:23; Rev. 21:24; Ezra 7:27.

(c) Rom. 13:3-4: 1 Peter 2:13-14.

(d) Rom. 13: see' (b); I Peter 2:13-17 see (c); Titus 3:1; 2 Peter 2:10; Jude v 8,9.

(e) 1 Tim. 2:1-2; Ezra 6:10; Psa lm 20: 72:1; Prov. 24:21; Exod. 8:9; Jer. 29:7; Rom. 13:6-7.

(f) Rom. 13:4,6; 1 Peter 2:13-17. see (c); Titus 3:1-2.

Clause 41.

(a) Gen. 3:19; Eccles. 12:7; Acts 13:36. Luke 23:4.

(b) Rom. 5:12: 6:23; Psa. 90:3; Heb. 9:27.

(c) Psa. 49:7-10; Eccles. 9:2.

(d) Phil. 1:21; Luke 2:29: 12:20; 16:22-23; 1 Cor. 15:5; Psa. 23:4.

(e) Eccles 12:7 see (a); Acts 13:36, see (a); Luke 23:43 see (a): Heb. 9:27 see (b)

(f ) 2 Cor. 5:1 -4: 5:8; Phil. 1:23; Heb. 12:22-23; 2 Tim. 4:6-8; Acts 3:21; Eph. 4:10; Rom. 8:23. ) (g) Luke 16:22-23 see (d); Job. 18:18: 27:8; Acts 2:25; Jude 6,7; 1 Peter 3:19.

Clause 42.

(a) 1 Thess. 4:16-18; 1 Cor. 15:51-52.

(b) Job 19:25-27; Luke 24:29-53; Matt. 22:31-32; Dan. 12:2; 1 Cor 15:42-44; Acts 24:15: John 5:28-29.

(c) 1 Kings 17:22; 2 Kings 4:32-35 13:21; Matt. 9:25; Luke 7:15

(d ) 1 Cor. 15:21-23, 42-50; John 6:40; Matt. 12:32 see (b); Acts 11:32.

(e) Dan. 12:2 see (b); John 5:29 see (b).

Clause 43.

(a) Acts 10:42; 17:31; John 5:212, 27.

(b) 2 Thess. 1:6-10; Rom. 2:16; 14:10-12; Matt. 25:31-46; 2 Cor. 5:10: Jude 14-15; Rev. 1:7.

(c) Matt. 25:31 see (b); Rom. 2:5-11; I Thess. 1:10.

(d) Rom. 2:5 see (c); 9:22; 2 Thess. 1:6-9 see (b)

(e) Gen. 18:25; 1 Sam. 2:10; Psa. 50:3-6; 96:13; 98:9; Jude :15; Rom. 2:5-6 see (c).

(f) Acts 10:42 see (a)I Phil. 2:6-9; Rom. 14:9; Matt. 26:64; 25:31 see (b).

(g) I Cor. 6:3; 2 Peter 2:4; Jude :6.

(h) John 5:27 see (a); Matt. 12:36-37; 25:31 see (c); 2 Thess. 1:5-7 see (b); Luke 21:27-28; Rom. 8:23-25.

(i) Matt. 24:36-44; 13:35-37: Luke 12:35-36; 2 Peter 3:11; Rev. 22:20.

Clause 44.

(a) Heb. 6:2; Matt. 25:41,.

(b) Matt. 25:46 see (a)

(c) Gen. 18:25; Deut. 32:4; Lam. 3:36.

(d) Matt. 3:12; 7:23; 13:42, 50; '25:41; Luke 16:23-24; Rev. 14:11; Jude 13; Mark 9:44, 46, 48; 2 Thess. 1:9.

(e) Mark 9:44, 48 see (d); Rev. 19:20; Matt. 22:13; 25:46 see (a); Gal. 6:7-8; Job 4:8; 21:30; Prov. 16:4; 22:8; 2 Thess. 1:8; Rom. 9:22; Isa. 33:14: Psa lm 11:6; Jer. 30:23; 2 Thess. 1:9 see (d).

(f) Matt. 25:21, 23 34. 46; 1 John 2:25; 3:2; Titus 1:2; Rom. 8:30; Phil. 1:23. 2 Cor. 4:17; Psa. 16:11; 17:15; 1 Thess. 4:17; 2 Thess. 1:10; Col. 3:3-4; 2 Tim. 2:12.

(g) 2 Cor. 3:18; 1 Cor. 13:12; Phil. 3:21; 1 John 3:2 see (f).

(h) Matt. 25:21 see (f); 2 Cor 4:17 see (f) Psa lm 17:15 see (f): 2 Tim. 2:12 see (f); Rom. 8:17; I Peter 1:1; Matt. 25:46 see (a).

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