Wednesday, December 17, 2014

Laodikei Lehkhathawn An Hmu-Chhuak Emni?

1. THUHMAHRUAI
British Museum-ah khuan “Laodikei Khuaa Mite Hnena Tirhkoh Paula Lehkhathawn(Laodikei Lehkhathawn) ni-awma an sawi, Lehkhathawn hlui tawh tak a awm a. He Lehkhathawn hian Châng 20 (Châng 19 nia sawi pawh an awm) a nei a, Ephesi Khuaa Mite Hnena Tirhkoh Paula Lehkhathawn nen a in-ang êm êm a, in-ang lo châng 2 chiah a awm. He Lehkhathawn hi “the Harleian MSS., Cod. 1212” an tih zinga mi kha a ni.

Laodikei khua leh Kolossa khua-te hi mêl 15 leka inhlatah an awm a. Laodikei, Kolossa leh Hierapoli khua-te hi Tirhkoh Paula Rawngbawlna aţanga piangthar Epaphra’n Kohhran a din te an ni a, Lycus lui kam tuaka khawpui awm an ni. Kan thu khel mêk “Laodikei Khuaa Mite Hnena Tirhkoh Paula Lehkhathawn” tih hi a sei teh duah êm a, a tawi zawngin “Laodikei Lehkhathawn” tiin kan sawi zel tawh mai ang.

Kolossa Khuaa Mite Hnena Lehkhathawn-a kan hmuh ang hian, amah Tirhkoh Paula ngeiin, “He Lehkhathawn hi in zinga in chhiar hnu-in Laodikei kohhranho zingah pawh chhiartir ve rawh u; nangni pawhin Laodikei khuaa mi kha lo chhiar ve bawk ang che u“ (Kol.4:16) a tih avangin, Laodikei Khuaa Mite Hnena Lehkhathawn hi a awm ngei a ni tih hi rinhlelh rual a ni lova. Hmuhchhuah erawh ala ni rih lo thung a ni.

He Lehkhathawn hmuchhuah loh hian mi tam tam rilru a luah a, “Khawiah nge he Lehkhathawn bo hi a awm?” tih hi zawhna awm reng leh zawh âwm tak a ni reng a. Ţhenkhat chuan, Bible bu dang leh Lehkhathawn dang bo te pawh a awm nual anga a lan avang hian, chungte chu hmuhchhuah tawh (The Lost Books of the Bible Found) ang te-in an tlâng than tir ţhin bawk a. Chuvangin, hetiang lam hawi hi thuchiang tak hriat hi thil ţul tak a nih avangin chhui kan tum dawn a ni.   
  

2. LEHKHA HI TU THAWN NGE? PAULA NGE LAODIKEI MITE?
Tirhkoh Paul ţawngkam hi lo en chîk deuh hlek ila, “He Lehkhathawn hi in zinga in chhiar hnu-in Laodikei Kohhranho zingah pawh chhiartir ve rawh u; nangni pawhin Laodikei khuaa mi kha lo chhiar ve bawk ang che u“(Kol.4:16) tiin a sawi a. Helai ţawngkam hi a Greek ţawng chuan hetiang hian a inziak a, “en te Laodikeon ekklesia... ten ek Laodikias…” Hemi thu hi hetiang hian, a ţawngkam ngai ngaiin Letling dawn ta ila, "He lehkhathawn hi Laodikei kohhran ho zingah lo chhiar ve rawhse, nangni pawhin LAODIKEI KHUA AŢANGA LEHKHATHAWN KHA LO CHHIAR VE RAWH U (read in the church of the Laodiceans…and read the epistle from Laodicea)."

Achunga Greek ţawng aţanga lehlin-ah khi chuan, Kawh-tum 3 a nei thei ta tlat mai, (1). Laodikei khuaa miten Paula hnena Lehkha an thawn, (2). Laodikei khua aţanga Paulan Kolossa mite hnena Lehkha a thawn, (3). Paulan Laodikei khuaa mite hnena Lehkha a thawn. A eng ber khi nge ni ang? tih chu Tawi tete-in Sawifiah zui dawn ta ila.

(1). Laodikei khuaa miten Paula hnenah Lehkha an thawn a, copy 2 siamin, anmahni copy tur hi an dah-ţha a, anmahni copy dah-ţhat chu Kolossa mite hnenah chhiar tura pechhawng turin Paulan a hrilh. He ngaihdân hi a fuh loh hmel viau.
(2). Laodikei khua aţanga Kolossa mite hnena Lehkhathawn Paulan a ziak a ni tia ngaihdân pawh hi amah Paula ţawngkam hian a rawn ţhiat tlat mai a, “Nangmahni leh Laodikei khuaa awmte leh, tisaa ka hmel hmu lo apiangte…” (Kol.2:1) tiin a ziak a. Paula hian Laodikei khua hi ala thleng lo hrim hrim a, a thlen loh khua aţang chuan lehkhathawn ziah ngaihna a awm lo.
(3). Tirhkoh Paula ngeiin Laodikei khuaa Kohhran-te hnena Lehkha a thawn a, Kolossa mite pawh lo chhiar ve ngei turin a châh a ni. He ngaihdân hi a pawmawm hle. Kolossa 2:1 & 4:15-te kan chhiar chuan Paulan Laodikei kohhran a vei zia a lang chiang hle a. Chuvangin, Lehkhathawn pawh a hran liau liau-in a ziak ngei ang tih hi a rinhlelhawm loh. Amaherawhchu, vanduaithlâk takin, he Lehkhathawn hi an hmuchhuak zo ta lova, a bo hlen ta a ni.   

3. LEHKHATHAWN HMUH-CHHUAH ANGA SAWI CHUNGCHÂNG
He Laodikei Lehkhathawn (Paul’s Epistle to Laodiceans) Hmuh-chhuah anga sawi hi Victor of Capua hnena lehkhathawn Fulda Manuscript tia hriat lâr zingah telin A.D. 546 khân a rawn lâr ţan a. Fulda Manuscripts awmna hi Monastery of Fulda, Germany-ah a ni a. Kum 744 khân Saint Sturm (disciple of Saint Boniface)-an he Monastery hi a din a, he hmunah hian Latin ţawnga ziak Manuscripts 2000 chuang an dah ţha a ni.

Khawthlang lam Kohhran-in an hman “The Latin Vulgate Bible”-ah chuan he Lehkhathawn (Epistle to the Laodiceans) hi kum tam tak an lo chuan-tir tawh a. Kum zabi 4-na hnu phei chuan, Pope Gregory the Great pawhin a pawmpui thuak a. John Wycliffe pawhin a Bible lehlin hmasak ber Latin aţanga English-a a lehlin (1382)-ah khân a telh hman bawk.

Latin Vulgate (Codex Fuldensis 546 telin) Bible tam takah te, Albigensian, Bohemian, English leh Flemish Bible-ah te chuan an chuan-tir vek a. Kum zabi 10-na tawp lamah khân Puithiam Aelfric (Dorset khua) chuan Anglo-Saxon Bible thuhmahruai-ah Paulan Lehkhathawn 15 a ziah thu a târ lang a. Philemona dawtah hian Laodikei Lehkhathawn hi a dah nghe nghe a. Mahse, tuna kan neih Bu 27-te chauh hi pawm tlâka ngaih an ni ta a ni.

Martin Luther-an Bible a Lehlin hmaa German Bibles Lehlin 18-ah te kha chuan (German Bible hmasaber, Johann Mental-an 1488-a a lehlin tiamin) Laodikei Lehkhathawn hi an telh vek a. Heng German Bible-ah te hian Laodikei Lehkhathawn hi Galatia leh phesi inkârah an dah nghe nghe. Czech (Bohemian) Bible hmasaber, kum 1488-a chhuah (kum zabi 16 & 17 chhunga vawi engemaw zat chhut-nawn)-ah pawh Kolossa zawhah Laodikei Lehkhathawn hi dah a ni.

Khitiang khawp khian Bible Lehlin hrang hrangah he Laodikei Lehkhathawn hian hmun a lo luah thûk hman tawh a. Chuvangin, Bishop Lightfoot chuan, “He Lehkhathawn Lem hian Bible Thianghlim-a pawm ni chiah silo, hnawl ni chiah bawk si lo dinhmunah kum zabi 9 chhung teh meuh kha kawngkhar bulah a lo ding tawh a ni (for more than nine centuries this forged epistle hovered about the doors of the sacred Canon, without either finding admission or being peremptorily excluded)” tiin a lo sawi hial a ni.

Tichuan, Kohhran Inkhawmpui Lian “Council of Florence” (1439-43)-ah khân, Bible Bu ţhenhranna fel tak (categorical opinion on the Scriptural canon) an lo siam, Thutthlung Thar Bu 27 te chu an nemnghet nawn leh a, “Laodikei Lehkhathawn” nia sawi hi chu hnawl-hlen a ni ta a ni. He Inkhawmpuiah hi chuan, Paula Lehkhathawn zingah hian “Hebrai Lehkhathawn” pawh telh a nih avangin Paula Lehkhathawn hi 14 anga record a ni nghe nghe a ni.

He Laodikei Lehkhathawn nia sawi hi “Muratorian Fragment” (Muratorian Canon)-ah pawh a tel lo tlat mai!! Kan hriat angin Muratorian Fragment hi Milan Library-a Librarian Muratori-an kum 1740 khân Fragment hi a hmu chhuak a. Hetah hian tuna Thuthlung Thar kan neih-te Nemnghettu atâna ţangkai tak “Chanchin Ţha Bu-a Telte Chuanna” (List of Gospel) a ni a, Kum zabi 3-na vela ziak ni ngeia ngaih a ni. He Muratorian Fragment-a a tel loh avang hian Scholar tam tak-ten Laodikei Lehkhathawn hi an pawm lo ta bawk a ni.

He Laodikei Lehkhathawn ni-awma sawi hi Ephesi Lehkhathawn nen a in-ang êm êm a, Châng 2 chiah in-ang lo (danglam) a awm kan tih tawh kha. Thuthlung Thara Bible Bu 27 awm-te hi in-kungkaih-kual deuh vek an nih laiin, Laodikei Lehkhathawn hi chu khawi-ah mah, tumahin an sawi lang hauh lo hi thil mak tak a ni bawk. Hei hi Thuthlung Thar Bu-a an telh lohna chhan pawimawh tak a ni reng a ni.     

Scholar tam tak ten “Lehkhathawn Lem leh Siamchawp” (forgery/pseudo-gospel)-ah an pawm tlâng a. Bible-a an pawm loh chhan lian berah chuan, Greek Ţawnga ziak a ni lova (no surviving Greek text), Latin ţawnga ziak a ni tlat mai hi “Lehkhathawn Lem leh Siamchawp” a nihzia tichiangtu-a an ngaihna chhan lian tak a leh bawk a ni.

4. ENG-ANG LEHKHATHAWN NGE NI RÊNG RÊNG?
Kan sawi tâk Muratorian Fragment-ah khian, “Laodikei Lehkhathawn” hi Marcion-a Ziak/Phuahchawp (Marcionist Epistle to the Laodiceans) niin a târlang nghe nghe a. Hei hi a ţawngkam hmandân leh a thu kalpui dân (outlook) en-in a hriat hle niin a sawi bawk. Marcion-a hi Pontus khuaa mi a ni a, Gnostic ruh tak a ni a. A.D 140 khân Rome-ah kalin, ama ngaihdân leh phuahchawp zirtirna chu a thehdarh ţan a. Ama thlankhawm bik Bible a siam  nghe nghe a. Thuthlung Thar bikah Paula Lehkhathawn 10 leh Chanchin Ţha Luka Ziak leh Tirhkohte Thiltih chiah chu Bible-ah a pawm a. Marcion-a hian “7 Catholic Epistle” tia hriat lâr- Jakoba, Petera 1 & 2, Johana 1, 2 & 3 leh Juda te bâkah; Heng Matthaia, Marka, Johana, Hebrai te leh, “Pastoral Epsitles” tia kan hriat lâr- Timothe 1 & 2, Tita, te hi a hnawl vek bawk a ni.

Ţhenkhat chuan, Paula hian Kolossa Lehkhathawn leh Laodikei Lehkhathawn te hi a rualin a ziak a. Tukika a kentir ve ve a. Tin, Paula hian Lehkhathawn Inţawm/inang (Circular Epistle) hi a ziak a, chu chu Kolossa ah te, Ephesi-ah te, Hierapoli ah te, leh Laodikei khuaah te hian chhiar ţheuh turin a hrilh hlawm nia ngai an awm a (Kol.4:13,16). He mite ngaihdânah chuan “Laodikei Lehkhathawn” hi a bo lova, Lehkhathawn Inţawm/inang (Circular Epistle) a nih avangin tuna kan neih Ephesi Lehkhathawn hi a ni mai e, an ti ve bawk. Mahse, he ngaihdân hi pawmpui turin ţanpuitu Bible aţangin kan hmu mang tlat lova, pawm a hârsa deuh.  

5. CHURCH FATHERS LEH BIBLE SCHOLAR-TE PAWM DÂN
Kohhran Pa (Church fathers)-te leh Bible Scholars-ten “Laodikei Lehkhathawn” hi “Ziah-chawp, Phuahchawp” (forgery/pseudo-gospel) an tihna chhan ber-te chu, Kum zabi 1-na hun (First century) chhunga ziak a nih loh avang leh Greek ţawnga ziak a nih loh avangin a ni.

Jerome, Peter T. O’Brien, Chrysostom, Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theodoret Beza te chuan “Laodikei Lehkhathawn” ni-awma sawi hi eng ti kawng mahin Paula Lehkhathawn a ni thei lo hrim hrim” tiin  ngaihdân an sawh nghet hle a. William Barclay thung chuan, “Laodikei Lehkhathawn” ni-awma an sawi hi Paula Lehkhathawn a ni lo” tia a pawm ngheh viau laiin, “Philemona zawk hi Paulan Laodikei khuaa a thawn zawk chu a ni” tiin ngaihdân danglam tak mai a nei hlauh thung! He Barclay-a ngaihdân hi chu pawmpuitu an tlêm êm avangin pawmtlâk lovah ngai ta mai ila.


Wilhelm Schneemelcher chuan, “Marcion-a Lehkhathawn Phuahchawp (Marcionite forgeries) 2 te chu “Laodikei Lehkhathawn” leh “Alexandria Lehkhathawn” (epistle to the Laodiceans & epistle to Alexandrians) te hi an ni,” a lo ti tawh bawk. Tertullian leh Epiphanius of Salamis leh Filastrius te pawhin, “He Lehkhathawn Phuahchawp hi Marcion-a Ziak a ni a, Paula hming a puttir mai a ni e,” an ti bawk.

Pope Gregory the Great chauh kha Kohhran Puipate zinga ‘Laodikei Lehkhathawn hi Paula Ziak anga pawmtu’ tlêmte zinga a awm chhun a ni a. Pope Gregory pawh khan a ‘pawm-nghet bur lo’ vet ho bawk.

6. TLÂNGKAWMNA
Bible-ah ngei ziaka a awm avangin, Paulan Laodikei Khuaa Mite Hnenah hian Lehkha a thawn ngei a ni tih thu-ah chuan Bible Scholar-te an lungrual tlâng hle a. Mahse, he Lehkhathawn dik tak erawh hi chu tun thlengin hmuhchhuah ala ni ta lo a ni. O’Brien chuan, “A.D 60-61 vela Lycus Phaizawl leh a chheh vela Lirnghingah khân he Laodikei Lehkhathawn hi a ral ve ta a ni ang e,” a ti.

Tunlaia “Laodikei Lehkhathawn” ni-awma sawi hi 150-350 A.D vela ziak niin a lang a. A Ziak hun ngaihtuah hian Tirhkoh Paula ziak a ni thei lo hrim hrim a. Tin, he Lehkhathawn hi Latin ţawnga ziak a ni a, Paula ziak chu nise Greek ţawngin a ziak ngei ang tih a chiang bawk a ni.

Khitiang khi a nih nuaih avângin, Bible-a telh tur-te thlan a nih lai khân “Lehkhathawn Phuahchawp” a ni tih an pawm nghet hle a (almost unanimously considered pseudepigraphal). Chuvangin, Bible-ah pawh an telh lo ta reng a ni. Jerome-a phei chuan, “mi zawng zawngin an hnawl a ni” (it is rejected by everyone) a ti hial a nih kha. Chuvangin, LAODIKEI LEHKHATHAWN (Laodikei Khuaa Mite Hnena Tirhkoh Paula Lehkhthawn) kha an la hmu-chhuak lova, hmuh-chhuah ni-awma an sawi pawh hi dâwt leh phuahchawp a ni e.

SELECTED REFERENCES
1. Watson E. Mills; Roger Aubrey Bullard Mercer. Dictionary of the Bible. Mercer University Press, 1990.
2. Bart D. Ehrman. Lost Christianities: The Battles For Scripture And The Faiths We Never Knew, 2005.
3. Wilhelm Schneemelcher; Robert McLachlan Wilson; R. McL. Wilson New Testament Apocrypha, Volume Two: Writings Relating to the Apostles; Apocalypses and Related Subjects. Westminster John Knox Press, 2003.
4. Peter T. O'Brien, Word Biblical Commentary: Colossians-Philemon, Word Biblical Commentary, Dallas: Word, 2002.
5. The Letters to Timothy, Titus, and Philemon, ed. William Barclay, Lecturer in the University of Glasgow, The Daily study Bible Series, Rev. ed. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 2000.
6. D.A. Carson, New Bible Commentary: 21st Century Edition, 4th ed. USA: IVP, 1994.
7. Robert W. Wall, Colossians & Philemon, The IVP New Testament Commentary Series. USA: IVP, 1993.
8. www.ntcanon.org/Epistle_to_the_Laodiceans.shtml
9. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biblical_canon
10. www.marcionite-scripture.info/

EPISTLE TO THE LAODICEANS
1. Paul, an apostle not of men and not through man, but through Jesus Christ, to the brethren who are in Laodicea: 2. Grace to you and peace from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 3. I thank Christ in all my prayer that you are steadfast in him and persevering in his works, in expectation of the promise for the day of judgment. 4. And may you not be deceived by the vain talk of some people who tell (you) tales that they may lead you away from the truth of the gospel which is proclaimed by me. 5. And now may God grant that those who come from me for the furtherance of the truth of the gospel (...) may be able to serve and to do good works for the well-being of eternal life. 6. And now my bonds are manifest, which I suffer in Christ, on account of which I am glad and rejoice. 7. This ministers to me unto eternal salvation, which (itself) is effected through your prayers and by the help of the Holy Spirit, whether it be through life or through death. 8. For my life is in Christ and to die is joy (to me). 9. An this will his mercy work in you, that you may have the same love and be of one mind. 10. Therefore, beloved, as you have heard my presence, so hold fast and do in the fear of God, and eternal life will be your portion. 11. For it is God who works in you. 12. And do without hesitation what you do. 13. And for the rest, beloved, rejoice in Christ and beware of those who are out for sordid gain. 14. May all your requests be manifest before God, and be yea steadfast in the mind of Christ. 15. And what is pure, true, proper, just and lovely, do. 16. And what you have heard and received, hold in your heart and peace will be with you. [17. Salute all the brethren with the holy kiss.] 18. The Saints salute you. 19. The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit. 20. And see that this epistle is read to the Colossians and that of the Colossians among you.
(translation from pp. 43-44 v 2. of [Schneemelcher]) (from the Vulgate).

EPISTULA AD LAODICAEOS
1:1 Paulus apostolus non ab hominibus neque per hominem sed per Iesum Christum, fratribus qui sunt Laodiciae. 1:2 gratia vobis et pax a Deo Patre et Domino Iesu Christo. 1:3 gratias ago Christo per omnem orationem meam, quod permanentes estis in eo et perseverantes in operibus eius, promissum expectantes in diem iudicii. 1:4 neque destituant vos quorundam vaniloquia insinuantium, ut vos evertant a veritate evangelii quod a me praedicatur. 1:5 et nunc faciet Deus, ut qui sunt ex me ad profectum veritatis evangelii deservientes et facientes benignitatem operum quae salutis vitae aeternae 1:6 et nunc palam sunt vincula mea quae patior in Christo; quibus laetor et gaudeo. 1:7 et hoc mihi est ad salutem perpetuam; quod ipsum factum orationibus vestris et administrantem Spiritum Sanctum, sive per vitam sive per mortem. 1:8 est enim mihi vere vita in Christo et mori gaudium. 1:9 et in ipsum in vobis faciet misericordiam suam, ut eandem dilectionem habeatis et sitis unianimes. 1:10 ergo, dilectissimi, ut audistis praesentia mei, ita retinete et facite in timore Dei, et erit vobis vita in aeternum; 1:11 est enim Deus qui operatur in vos. 1:12 et facite sine retractu quaecumque facitis. 1:13 et quod est, dilectissimi, gaudete in Christo. et praecavete sordidos in lucro. 1:14 omnes sint petitiones vestrae palam apud Deum. et estote firmi in sensu Christi. 1:15 et quae integra et vera et pudica et iusta et amabilia facite. 1:16 et quae audistis et accepistis, in corde retinete, et erit vobis pax. 1:17 salutate omnes fratres in osculo sancto. 1:18 salutant vos sancti. 1:19 gratia Domini Iesu cum spiritu vestro. 1:20 et facite legi Colosensium vobis. (from the Vulgate & The World)

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