Friday, February 20, 2015

Kohhran Tih-Sual Râpthlâk – Part 2 (Mipa Thuamhnaw Inbel-a Puh Avangin An Hâl-hlum!!!)

1. THL SUAL TIH TUM MIPUI ZUI SUH
I chhungte tu-emaw kha, miin dâwt ngial-nganin puh sela, Kohhran leh Sorkar ţangrual chuan Court-ah dik lo takin thiamlohchantir sela, hâl-hlum ta bawk sela! Mahse, an hâl-hlum aţanga kum 500 zet liam hnu-ah a thiamchanna thu sawichhuak leh si sela, engtinnge i ngaih ang? “A dikna leh thiamchanna hailan-a a awm ta chu a lawmawm lutuk alawm” tih lam aiin, thinrimna leh rilru nâtna a belhchhah zawk mai lo’ng maw?

SAINT JOAN OF ARC khân Pathian Aw a hriat avangin Indonaah Hnehna changin France ram tân thil ropui tak a ti a. Mahse, îtsîktu leh tihchhiat duhtuten Chhuanlam eng-eng emaw siamin an man a, rorelna a hmachhawn a. Mahse, Thihna khawp Tih-sual engmah a lo nei leh silo!!! Amah îtsîktute leh hawtute chuan Tihhlum ngei an duh si a, an Man-chhan ni lem lo, thil ho lutuk, “Mipa thuamhnaw a inbel” tia Dâwta puh-in, Sorkar Court leh Kohhran Court Ţangrual chuan Mipui Sâ-hăwk chu hmanruaa hmangin an Hâl-hlum ta a ni!!! Hetah hian Kohhran chu a sulsutu ala ni zui!! He Thilthleng râpthlâk tak hi a lungchhiat thlâk tak zet zet a ni. Mahse, Kum 500 zet a liam hnu-ah chuan, Thiamlohchantir-a Hâl-hlumtu Kohhran ngei chuan “MITHIANGHLIM” (Saint)-ah a puang leh lawi si!!!  

Mihring hi thîkna te, îtsîkna te, huatna te a lo awm chuan, kan tih duh loh te, kan châk loh te kan ti mai ţhin a. Invêng fimkhur lo phei chuan, tual hial an thah phah ţhin. US-a khawpui lian zual 10-a Prison-te aţanga Research an neihna aţanga an thil hmuhchhuah chu… Tualthah chhan an chhuinaah, thîkna, îtsîkna leh huatna te hi Tual an thah chhan tlang pui a ni. Tualthat zinga 20% vel te chauhvin, Tualthah tum sa ran-in an îtsîk zawng leh an huatzawng-te hi an bei ţhin chauh a. A bâk zawng, a tam zawk daih 80%-te chuan, Tualthah tum rêng vang ni lem lovin, thîkna leh îtsîkna avanga insual, inhnial leh inhauh aţanga inţan-in an tum loh, Tualthah hial a thleng ta ţhin a ni, an ti!!

Bible chuan, mahni tum rêng vang ni lo pawhin, tute-emaw fuihpawrh leh mipui Sâ-hăwk (Mob) thiltih zuina aţangin, tum loh deuh thil, thil pawi tak thlengin a tih theih a ni, tih chiang takin min hrilh a. Chuvangin, “Thil sual tih tumin mipui chu i zui tur a ni lo” (Deut.23:1-9) tiin, min lo vaukhân lawk daih tawh a ni.

Fakna Hla Phuahtu chuan, “Lalpa, Vantlâng zingah I aw hre thei’an min pui la…” tiin Pathian ţanpuina a ngen lawm lawm a. Kohhran hi Lal Isua Thisena din ni mahse, Mihring aw leh Pathian aw in-chawhpawlh kâra Thutlûkna siam tur an nih avangin Kohhran Hruaitute Mawhphurhna hi a sâng hle. Mihring aw chauh an ngaihthlâk chuan, Mipui pawh thui tak an hruai-sual thei a, mimal chungah pawh dik lo takin ro an rêl thei a ni.

Apostol Paulan hei hi hria-in Ephesi khaw Upa hote kha a chah ulûk hle a, “Pathian Kohhranho, Ama thisena a leite chu châwm turin nangmahni leh in hote zawng zawng chungah chuan FIMKHUR rawh u, Thlarau Thianghlimin an chunga hotu-ah a siam che u hi” (Tirh.20:28) tiin a chah mawlh mawlh a nih kha. Vawiin-a kan Thu Zir turah hian Pathian Aw ngaithla lova, Mihring Aw ngaithla a, zuitute thiltih sual râpthlâk tak chungchâng kan zir ho dawn a ni.

2. PATHIAN AW KA HRIA, HNEHNA KAN CHANG DAWN!!
Arc khaw Nula kum 17 mi Joan-in “Pathian aw ka hria” a tih hi, tunlai kan Zoram dinhmun ang chu ni sela, mi tam tak chuan kan awih nghal mai ngei ang. Mahse, hetih hunlai hian, Kohhran ram chu thlarau lamah a chau êm êm a, thlarau lama harhna emaw, hlimna ri leh thawm pakhat mah hriat-tur a awm lova, a reh hian a reh tlawk tlawk mai a! Puithiam tam tak leh Kohhran rawngbawltu fel tak tak-te chu nawmsip-bawlnaah an tlu zel zul a! Chutiang kâra Pathian aw hretu nih chu thil awihawm lo ber-te zinga mi a ni ang a, a hlauhawm let-ling zawk awm e.

Joan-i hian kum 13 mi lêk a nih aţangin (Samuela angin) Pathian aw a hre ţhin a. Mahse, Engtia chhân tur nge? tih a hriat loh avang leh Puithiam-te lehzel pawhin an ţanpui theih loh avangin a lo ngawih-pui tawp a. Kum 17 a rawn tlin chuan, Pathian aw a hriat chu a chian êm avangin, France Lal hnenah kalin, “Pathianin French sipaite hruaia English sipaite bei turin min ti a. Hnehna kan chang dawn a ni” tih thu chu a hrilh ta a ni.

Hetih lai hian Joan-i hi Nula Tleirawl chhuak-tir kum 17 mi lêk ala ni nâ a, France Lal chuan a thusawi chu awihin, Kohhran Committee Remtihpuina la thlapin French Sipaite chu Joan-i kutah a pe ta a. Tichuan, May 1429 khân French sipaite chuan hnehna changin, Orléans chu an la ta a ni. Hemi hnu, July 1429, Reims-a France Lal Charles VII Lallukhum khumtir (Coronation ceremony) a nih khân, Lal hian Joan-i chu a bulah a ţhuttir nghe nghe.

France Lal hnen aţang hian zir tur pawimawh tak kan nei. Pathian thu zir pawh ni lo, Pastor pawh ni lovin, Hmeichhe Tleirawl kum 17 mi thusawi, Pathian aw a hriat chungchângah, “Pathian aw hretu dik tak a ni” tih a hriat-theihna hi thil pawimawh tak a ni. Hei hi, France Lal hian “Thlarau Thianghlim Aw a ngaih pawimawh thiam vang a ni” kan ti lo thei lovang. Pathian a rintawk zia pawh alang chiang nghal bawk. Chu chuan a ram tân thil ropui tak a thlen nghal reng a nih kha.

Tunlai hian Zoramah Harhna-in khaw ţhenkhat a tuam mêk a, Thlarau Thianghlim hnathawh mak leh ropui tak tak pawh a lang chho mêk niin alang. Hetih lai hian, Rawngbawltu zingah ngei ngei pawh Bible Zirtirna leh Thlarau Thianghlim hnathawh dân zir leh ngaihtuah hawt lovin, Pathian Aw hre tura thiltih eng mah nei chuang bawk silovin, lo sawisel ve chiam kan la tam riauvin alang. Pathian aw chiang taka kan hria te a nih ngawt loh chuan, ngawi renga lo ţawngţai-pui mai hi a finthlâk berin a rinawm. Thlarau Thianghlim hian a Hnathawh dân turah hian tumah min rawn silova, kan ţawng-sual viau palh ang tih a hlauhawmin ka hria (Rom 11:33-36, 1Kor.2:6-16, etc.).   

3. PATHIAN AW HRIAT AVANGIN KOHHRANIN AN MAN!!!
Kum 1430 khân, France Lal remtihna lovin indonaah an fehchhuak a, vanduaithlâk takin Joan-i chu English sipaite nena inthurual France sipaite chuan an man ta hlauh mai a. Thla 6 hnu-ah chuan, English mite hnenah an hralh a. Lal Isua an man a, a chungchâng an ngaihtuah aţanga Pilata leh Heroda intai ţhin an lo innrem ta ang mai khân (Luka 23:12), France leh England chu an inrem chhoh zel tâkah chuan, Joan-i chungchâng chu France Secular Court leh Church Court chuan an ngaihtuah ta a ni.   

Anihna takah chuan, Joan-i Chungthu heti taka la serious a, Sorkar leh Kohhran ţang-kawp meuhvin an buaipui tâk hluai na chhan hi, French Kohhran hruaitute zinga English mite lama ţang ten Joan-i hi tihhlum tuma an phiarrûk vang a ni. Mahse, an duh angin Evidence chiang kuang tak an nei leh thei si lo. Tichuan, Sawipuitu (legal counselor) a neih an phal sak lo ta phawt a!!! Hei hi Sorkar leh Kohhran dân kalh tlat a ni!! Tichuan, Pharisai-ten Lal Isua ţawng-sual an châng ang khân, a chungchâng an relnaah, Pathian aw a hriat chungchângah chuan, Joan-i ţawng-sual hlir an châng ta ringawt mai a ni!! Joan-i beitute zinga a phusa ber Jean LeMaitre phei chuan a ţawng-sual theihna turin “Pathian aw a hriat dân” chungchâng chu manna tur remchang zawngin thu tam tak a zawt fo ţhin a ni!!

Thil mak tak mai chu, Thla 14 zet an dâwp chhungin, Joan-i chu Thlarau Thianghlimin a awmpui tlat a, an huat tur leh an lâkkawi theih turin ţawng-sual a nei ta rêng rêng lova, an thangkamah chuan âwk lovin him pialin a chhuak ta zel mai a nih chu!!! Mahse, Tihhlum ngei an duh si, a thusawi-ah manna tur remchâng an hmu thei ngang silo, an haw tulh tulh ta a! A tawp-khâwkah chuan, Dâwt ngial-ngana puhin tihhlum turin an relthlu thei ta hrâm a ni!!

Joan-i chunga Kohhran Hruaitute chêt dân hi a tênawm-in, a turu a, a râpthlâk tak zet zet a ni. Hetiang Kohhran hi tunlaiah la awm ve tak maw??? Bible zirtirna chu an zui lo chiang bal a, Bible thu-te chu engah mah an ngai lo tih a langchiang hle a, mihring zâhderna leh hmai zâhna chhetê pawh an nei eih lo tih pawh a chiang leng-lawng khawp mai. Bible-in, “Lang lo tura thuhrûk engmah a awm lova, hriat loh tura zep pawh engmah a awm hek lo” (Mat.10:26) tia a lo sawi tawh angin, an Thiltih Tênawm tak leh Râpthlâk tak-te chu engtik ni-ah emaw chuan Pathianin ala hailang dawn a ni, tih pawh an ngaihtuah phak lo!!!

Ramhuai rilru an put tlat avangin Pathian Thinûrna an chunga lo lêt tur, an Thiltih sual Sawh-khawk (consequences) an tuar tur lam rêng rêng pawh an ngaihtuah bawk lo. Mahse, Joan-i chunga Kohhran Hruaitute chêt dân hi dem theih a ni lo. A chhan chu, Pathian Aw tellova, Ramhuai rilru pu-a mifel tih-chhiatna tura ro an rêl tlat avangin, thil ţha lo tak an rêl leh an tih-te chu “an Pa Diabola duhzawng ti an ni a, an tih âwm rêng” a ni tlat a ni (cf. John 8:44, Tirh.13:10, 1Joh.3:8-10, Thup.3:10). Thlarau-mi Pakhatin, “Ringlomi leh Zurui-te ai hian, Kohhran Hruaitu leh Rawngbawltu Piangthar Lo leh Thlarau Thianghlim Tellova rawngbawl-te hian Kohhran hi an lo tibuaiin, Pathian Hnathawh hi an ti-ţhuanawp nasa ber zawk!” a lo tih kha ava dik êm!!!

4. MIPA THUAMHNAW INBELA PUH AVANGIN HÂL-HLUM!!!
Atirah chuan, Joan-i kha “Pathian aw ka hria” a tih avangin Kohhran Hruaituten an man a, a chungchâng an ngaihtuah kha a ni a. “Pathian aw” a hriat dân a sawi aţanga Tihhlum theihna khawp Thu sual sawitir an tum a, mahse, thla 14 zet an dâwp hnu pawhin manna tur an nei thei si lo!! Chuvangin, dâwt sawiin, dâwtin an puh ta ringawt a, “Dawithiam (witchcraft) a ni a, Kohhran-ah Zirtirna Dik Lo (heresy) a thehdarh a, Mipa thuamhnaw a inbel ţhin (wearing masculine dress)” tiin, an hêk leh ta a ni.

Kum 1431-ah chuan, tihluihna-in a sual an puan-tir a, damchhunga Lung ina tâng turin an ti a. Mahse, a chet-dân leh a awmdân te an en-in, mi duhsakna a dawngin, khawngaih a hlawh êm avangin Ling in aţanga a chhuah leh mai an hlauthawng leh ta a. Tichuan, amah îtsîktute leh beitute chuan, “France ram tân mi hnawksak a nih bâkah, Tân inah pawh Kohhran ala do zel a, mipa thuamhnaw a inbel ţhin a. Dawithiam a ni a, Zirtirna Dik Lo thehdarhtu a ni tel bawk a, tihhlum ngei a ngai a ni” tiin Court-ah bawk chuan an rawn thlen leh ta a. Tichuan, hâl-hlum turin an titlu ta nge nge a. May 30, 1431 khân Joan of Arc chu Rouen khawpuia Old Market Square lun laiah Ram dân bawhchhia, Dawithiam, Kohhran Dotu, Zirtirna Dik Lo Thehdarhtu leh Mipa Thuamhnaw inbel ţhin” tia an puhna-te avangin an hâl-hlum ta a ni!!!

Tichuan, “Pathian aw ka hria a ti” tih te, “English mite France Lal thupek lovin a that (Ram dân bawhchhia)” tih te, “Zirtirna dik lo (heresy) a thehdarh” etc., tia an puhna te kha chu an chhuanlam lek a lo ni!! Kohhran-in Joan-i Thiamloh an chantirna chhan ber leh an Hâl-hlumna chhan ber zawk chu… “Mipa thuamhnaw a inbel ţhin” tih a ni ta a nih chu!!! Mizovin, “Kela be be mah la ka talh tho tho ang che” an lo tih kha a ang khawp mai!!! Joan-i kha tihhlum ngei an tum tlat a, chhuanlam tling tur thu an zawng kual a, an hmu thei si lova, thla 14 ngawt mai an nghâk ta ringawt a ni ber e. Thlarau lama Hruaitute thiltih râpthlâk zia hi a turu hle mai, sawiin a siak lo!!! Dikna leh Felna Pathian chu a ngawi reng lovang a, a awm mai mai bik hauh lovang le!!!

Ka ngaihtuahna a kal thui hle. He Zawhna hi ka rilru-ah a lo lut hial a!! Joan-i îtsîk a, dik lo taka thiamloh chantir a, beitu leh hâl-hlumtu Puithiam rualte kha vân ram an kai ang em le??? tih hi, a rawn ri-nawn tlut tlut mai. Golden Rule-a Mipakhat thusawi ka ziah kha a rawn thang-khâwk leh ţhin, “Heng Puithiam hote hi vân ram an kai chuan, KS leh Nawhchizuar leh Tualthatte pawh vân ram an kai vek ang” a tih kha!! Joan-i hâl-hlumtu Puithiam-te kha vân ram an kai tho dawn a nih chuan, thawhlawm pe lovin, ţawngţai lovin, inkhawm lo pawh ni ila vân ram chu kan kai ve tho dawn lawmni? an lo ti hlauh palh ang tih ava hlauhawm êm!!!

5. AN HÂL-HLUM KHA MITHIANGHLIM A LO NI SI!!!
Joan-i Nu ngenna (appealed) avangin Joan-i chu a thih hnu kum 25-ah, a Chungchâng thu (case) ngaihtuah ţhat leh a ni a. VATICAN COUNCIL CHUAN JOAN OF ARC CHU THIAMCHANGAH A PUANG (PRONOUNCED INNOCENT) TA, Pope chuan Joan of Arc Case chu a titawp (aquitted/ exonerated) ta a ni. Hun a kal zel a, hâl-hlum a nih aţanga kum 500 zet a liam hnu-ah, Thiamchanga an puang mai chu duhtawk lovin, Kohhran chuan Joan of Arc chunga an Thiltih Dik lo tak mai pawi-zia leh zah-thlâkzia hrechhuakin, thil mak leh danglam tak an ti ta thung!!!

May 16, 1920 khân, “Ram dân bawhchhia, Dawithiam, Kohhran Dotu, Zirtirna Dik Lo Thehdarhtu leh Mipa Thuamhnaw inbel ţhin” tia an puh avanga Khawvel Court leh Kohhran Court ţangrualin an hâl-hlum kha “MITHIANGHLIM JOAN(SAINT JOAN OF ARC) tiin Pope Benedict XV chuan Kohhran aiawhin a puang (canonize) ta a ni. Vawiin thlengin “MITHIANGHLIM JOAN” tia hriat rêng a ni ta!! Hei hi Kohhran Puitling leh Pathian Thlarauvin a hruai mêk awmdân leh zia chu a ni. Kohhran chu Mihring (Puithiam/Pastor pawh ni sela), Tisual theiin a hruai a nih tlat avangin Tih-sual a nei fo ţhin a, a nei zel ang. Hetah hian, Vân nen-a inzawm Kohhran Dik tak chuan, a Tih-sual chu zep mai lovin, inpuangin, Ngaihdam dilin, Theihtawpin Siamţhat hna a thawk ţhin a ni (Isaia 58:12).

6. I INCHHIR LEHNA TUR THIL ENGMAH TI SUH
Mizo Upa-in “inchhirin bân a chen” an tih leh, “Tui baw hnu a ruh leh theih tawh loh” an lo tih te chu, Tihpalh thilthu a ni emaw, tum rêng vang a ni emaw, Thiltih leh ţawngkam chhuak pawi tak, siamţhat leh theih tawh loh leh lâk-lêt leh theih tawh loh, inchhir eng-ang pawh nise sâwt tawh lo leh tihngaihna awm tawh lo, sawi nân an hmang ţhin. Bible-a kan hmuh Juda Iskariota kha Entirna leh Sawifiahna ţha tak a ni awm e.

Pathian meuhvin lungawi taka, “Ka thinlung ang pu mi ka chhar ta. Ani chuan ka duhzawng ang apiang a ti ang!” (Tirh.13:22) a tih Israel Lal Davida kha, ama duhthlanna ngeiin inngaihna sualah a tlu a, sualna rêng rêng nei lo Uria chu râwng takin a that zui a, a nupui Bathshebi a neihsak nghal hmiah bawk a!!! Lal Davida hian a thiltih-te chu Pathianin a hmuh loh a ring a ni mahna!! Mahse, Engkim hretu leh hmutu Pathian a ngawi thei lo, Zawlnei Nathana a tir vat a, “Khandaih chuan i chhungte chu a kiansan tawp lovang. Nang chuan min ngainepin Hit mi Uria nupui chu i nupui atân i chhuhsak ta si a” a ti ta a nih kha (2Sam.12:10).

Lal Davida Sualna chuan Chhungkaw buaina, ram buaina, chhiatna leh lungngaihna nasa tak a thlen nghal a. A Fapa Absaloma avangin Jerusalem-a a Lal In pawh luah ngam lovin thlalêrah te a vâk vai a, Pûkah te a riak a. A Thiltihsual man chu a seng chiang hle. Lal Davida khân inchhirin a sual-te a sim a, Pathian hnenah Ngaihdam a dil a, Pathian pawhin a ngaidam tih kan hria. Mahse, a History kha ţha deuh hleka ziak tir pawh tum sela Pathianin a phal tawh lo tih a chiang hle. A Thiltihsual te, a lungngaihna te, a rilru hâhna te, a tuarna te kha kim takin, hmaih awm hauh lovin Bible-ah record vek a ni.

Chhiartu duhtak, Tuteemaw Chhiat vekna tura arûka Lehkha i ziak te, Thu i sawi te, Thil i tih-te kha i dam laiin an phawrhchhuak lo a nih pawhin, Pathianin a la phawrhchhuak vek dawn a, a la lang-chhuak vek dawn a ni (2Kor.5:10). Îtsîkna avanga dik lo taka SAINT JOAN OF ARC hêk a, beitute leh hâl-hlumtute kha an tawpna a chhe hle, an chhungkua pawh an mang vek a, chithlâh – tu leh fate (generation) pawh nei lovin an ral tawp an ti!!!

Hetiang chanchin hi kan Zoram zim-te ah pawh hian sawi tur leh hriat tur a awm ve nual tlat mai!! Zorama Chanchin Ţha rawn thlentu Missionary te, Tirhkoh te, Pastor te leh Ringtu hmasa-te lo tiduhdah a, kut lo thlâk a, harsatna lo siamtute tawpna leh dinhmun leh an chunga thil thlengte lungchhiatthlâk zia chu Zofate hi mita hmutute kan ni a, sawi tur kan nei nual ang. Ram leh Kohhran leh Pawl-in hma kan sawn theih lohva, harsatna leh hlawhchhamna mak danglam takin min tlâk-buak fo a nih chuan, Lal Davida anga Hruaituten kan nun leh thiltih kan thlir-let a, kan in-enfiah a hun hle a ni.

Chhimlama Rawngbawltu ropui tak pakhat (a hming thup mai ila), “ZAWLNEI” tih hiala an koh chunga thil thleng pawh hian rilru a khawih khawp mai. Ruahpui vânawn sûr laia Pathian tirh-a Rawngbawl tura chhuah a ţul chuan, khum tur pawh engmah nei lovin chhuak mahsela, ruah mal pakhat pawhin a taksa leh thuamhnaw a ti-huh ve ngai lo!!! A thih chuan, a thih-thu vâna inziak chu khaw engemaw zâtah an lo hmu a, a ruang kil turin zanlaiah Rawngbawltu awmna khaw lamah chuan an kal a, a lo dik ngei bawk!!! He Rawngbawltu ropui hi amah îtsîktuten dâwtin an puh a. A tih ni miah lovah lei hial an chawi tir a, lungawi takin a chawi mai a. Mahse, hun a kal zêl a, mak tak maiin, dâwta puhtute hi chithlâh pawh nei miah lovin, an khawvel ni an hmang tawp, tih an sawi tlat mai!!!    

SAINT JOAN OF ARC chungchânga ka rilru khawih ber mai chu… khatia an hâl-hlum dawn khân, Lalpa Zânriah (Holy Communion) a ngên a, Kohhran khân an phal lo a nih chu!!! Thlarau boral tur lainâtna rêng rêng nei lovin, Hremhmunah kal ngei sela tiin an nawr-lui a ang khawp mai!!! Hun a kal zêl a, Saint Joan îtsîka beitute kha an dinhmun-te a chhiat zêl tâkah chuan an sual an inpuang (confessed) ta zêl a, “SAINT JOAN KHÂN TÂN INAH KHÂN MIPA THUAMHNAW RÊNG RÊNG A LO INBEL NGAI LOVA, DÂWTA KAN PUH-THLÛKNA MAI A NI” tiin an inpuang ta a nih chu!!! Lal Isua’n a aiawh-a khawvela a dah, Thlarau lam Rawngbawltu Kohhran Hruaituten SAINT JOAN OF ARC chunga an thiltih dân râpthlâk tak avang khân Hmangaih Pathian thinlung chu engang tlukin chhun-nâ ang maw!!! 


SAINT JOAN OF ARC
National Heroine and Patron Saint of France.
A. BIRTH= 1412
B. DEATH= May 30, 1431
C. PLACE OF BIRTH= Domrémy (now Domrémy-la-Pucelle), France.
D. KNOWN FOR=
Leading French troops to a decisive victory against the English at Orléans, which shifted the momentum toward the French in the Hundred Years' War (1337-1453).
E. MILESTONES=
1). February 1429 Convinced Charles, heir to the French throne, that divine voices had commanded her to save France; was placed in Command of French troops to fight the English in the Hundred Years' War.
2). May 1429 Led French troops to victory, breaking an English siege of Orléans.
3). July 1429 Sat at the side of Charles VII at his Coronation ceremony in Reims.
4). 1430 was captured during an unauthorized campaign at Compiégne by Bourguignon soldiers, French allies of England, who turned her over to the English six months later.
5). 1430-1431 was interrogated by an Ecclesiastical court at Rouen, and charged on various counts including witchcraft, heresy, and wearing male clothing.
6). 1431 Confessed wrongdoing and had her sentence reduced to life imprisonment, but after accused of wearing masculine dress, she was burned at the stake in the marketplace at Rouen as a relapsed heretic.
7). 1456 was found innocent in a Posthumous trial by an Ecclesiastical court, which voided the results of her heresy trial.
F. DID YOU KNOW=
1). Joan was just 17 years old when she led French troops to battle in Orléans.
2). From age 13, Joan believed that she heard celestial voices; she thought them to be those of Saint Michael, Saint Margaret of Antioch, and Saint Catherine of Alexandria.
3). Pope Benedict XV canonized Joan of Arc in 1920.
4). The story of Joan of Arc is widely portrayed in works of visual art and literature, including the play Saint Joan, for which British playwright George Bernard Shaw was Awarded the 1925 Nobel Prize.

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